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ON THE 



LAYING OUT, PLANTING, AND MANAGING 



OF 



CEMETERIES; 



AND ON 



THE IMPROVEMENT 



OF 



CHURCHYARDS. 



By J. C. LOUDON, F.L.S., &c. 

AUTHOR OF THE ARBORETUM BRITANNIOUM, ETC., AND CONDUCTOR OF THE 

gardener's MAGAZINE. 



LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR THE AUTHOR; 

A WD SOLD BY 

LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, AND LONGMANS. 

184.3. 






L 



LIST OF ENGRAVINGS. 

Fig. Page 

1, 2. Plan explanatory of the Imaginary- Square System of laying 

out Cemeteries - - - - - 16, 17 

3. to 10. Plans of Borders of Shrubs or Flowers for Cemeteries 22, 23 

1 1 . Plan of the Entrance Lodge to the Tower Hamlets Cemetery - 25 

12. Section of a Catacomb - - - - - 26 

13. Section of a Brick Grave - - - - - 27 

14. Pedestal resting on an under-ground Pier - • - 28 

15. Foundations for Head-stones - - • - - 29 

16. Monumental Tally of cast Iron - - - - - 29 

17. Plan of a Bed for containing Vaults, Catacombs, Brick Graves, 

and common Graves - - - - - - 30 

18. Cesspool for Cemetery Roads and Walks - - - 30 

19. Grave-Boards used in the Nunhead Cemetery - - - 31 

20. to 26. Grave-Boards used in the Tower Hamlets Cemetery 32, 33 

27. Screw Lever used in the Musselburgh Burying-Ground - - 34> 

28. Cemetery Plank Hook - - - - - '34 

29. Grave-Box - - - - - - -35 

30. 31. Brick and Tile Edgings to Walks - - - - 38 

32. Jukes's Truck-Hearse - - - • - - 58 

33. Plan of the Cambridge Cemetery - - - - 56 

34. 35. Sections of the Cambridge Cemetery - - - 50 

36. 38, 39. Ground Plan, Perspective View, and Section of the 

Chapel designed for the Cambridge Cemetery - - 58, 59 

37. Principal Entrance Lodge designed for the Cambridge Cemetery 59 

40. Isometrical View of the Cambndge Cemetery - - - 60 

41. Design for a Cemetery on hilly Ground a zincograph, to face 66 

42. Norwood Cemetery in its present State a zincography to face 68 

43. Norwood Cemetery, as it would appear if planted with dark- 

foliaged, fastigiate, and conical Trees a zincograph, to face 69 

44. Turkish Cemetery of Fera - - - - - 70 

45. Cemetery of Eyub or Ayub, near Constantinople - - 71 

46. Cemetery of Hafiz in Persia - - - - - 72 

47. Cemetery of the Vale of Tombs in China - - - 73 

48. Cemetery near the Yellow River in China - - - 75 

49. A Churchyard crowded with Graves, without Walks or Trees - 77 

50. The same Churchyard with Walks introduced, and Trees planted 79 

51. 52. Monuments in the Dumfries Churchyard - - 83, 84 

53. Isometrical View of a Churchyard adapted for an Agricultural 

Parish - - - - - - -91 

54. Ground Plan of the same - - - - - 93 

55. Entrance Lodge to the Newcastle Cemetery - - - 1 15 

56. Roofing Tiles used in the Chapel and Lodge of the Cambridge 

Cemetery - - - - - - -116 

57. Geological Diagram, to show in what description of Substrata 

Interments may take place without injuring the Water of the 
Springs - - - - - - -117 

58. Idea of a Cemetery Chapel - - - - - 1 1 7 

59. Idea for carrying off the Mephitic Gas from Catacombs - 118 

60. Hand-Bier for Walking Funerals, and for Use within Burying- 

Grounds ------- 120 



London : Printed by A. Spottiswoodb, New- Street- Square. 



PREFACE. 



Considering the laying out of cemeteries as coming within the province of 
the landscape-gardener, we have directed the attention of gardeners to the 
subject on various occasions and in various works, but more especially in the 
Gardenet's Magazine, from its commencement in 1825 to the present time. 

Our own attention was first forcibly directed to the subject of cemeteries 
in the year 1813; when, during a residence of between five and six months in 
Poland, we visited the public cemetery at Warsaw, and saw there the coffins 
of the higher classes inserted in cells in the boundary wall, and hermetically 
sealed with stucco (the name of the deceased being traced with an iron in- 
strument on the plaster while yet wet, so as to leave a deep and lasting im- 
pression obtained at little cost), while the poor were buried in trenches in the 
open ground, without coffins. In the neighbourhood of the military hos- 
pitals, outside the same city, we saw cart-loads of naked dead soldiers (for 
the battle of Bautzen had then just taken place) shot into large square 
pits, more than one of which were sometimes filled in the course of a day ; 
and, 'a little farther in the country, we saw the bodies of the aged poor, 
whose relatives could not afford either a coffin or the churchyard fees, dropped 
from the palish coffin into holes dug by the road side. (p. 45. note,) The 
strong impression made by these scenes has induced us ever since to pay par- 
ticular attention to cemeteries and churchyards wherever we have been, either 
abroad or at home ; and we have since seen all the more remarkable cemeteries 
on the Continent, from Stockholm to Naples, and all the large new ceme- 
teries in Britain. None of them, however, have ever appeared to us to be 
fully calculated to answer the end in view, and we have long designed to write 
a short work on cemeteries, but have always neglected to do so, till our atten- 
tion was recalled to the subject by the circumstance mentioned in p. 1., which 
has given rise to the present publication. 

If we had to write the present work over again, we should probably enlarge 
on two evils prevalent in all the new cemeteries about London, and, we believe, 
also in most, if not all, of the provincial cemeteries : that of not sealing up the 
coffins in the catacombs, but merely closing the cell with open ironwork; 
and that of interring a number of bodies in the same grave, without leaving a 
sufficient depth of earth over each coffin to absorb the greater part of the 
gases of decomposition. (See p. 37. and p. 67.) We cannot help considering 
the practice of exposing the coffins to view in catacombs as disgusting ; and 
there is undoubted proof (p. 4., and p. 45. note) of its being dangerous to the 
living, as it is only requisite to stand for a minute or two beside a grave which 
has been opened down to the last-deposited coffin, to experience the suffo- 
cating effect of the effluvia of decomposition, which escapes even from a coffin 
which has perhaps been only deposited a week or two, and the wood of which 

A 2 



IV PREFACE. 

is of course perfectly sound. (See p. 27. note,) We refer to the grave-diggers 
for a description of the horrible and almost intolerable sufferings which they 
experience in reopening family graves, the effect of which may also be seen in 
their pale and ghastly countenances. 

Because the graves in the new cemeteries are not yet crowded together 
as they are in the old churchyards, and because there is abundance of room 
in the vaults, it is commonly thought that the new places of interment are 
free from all the horrors of the old burying-grounds. Undoubtedly th^re is 
a great difference between them ; but, as far as relates to catacombs, vaults, 
and brick graves, and to the practice of reopening family and common graves, 
down to the last-deposited coffin, the improvement has been very trifling, and 
a thorough reformation is required. Unless this takes place, it is not difficult 
to foresee that the new cemeteries will soon cease to be wholesome places of 
recreation, more especially such as are on level ground, or are surrounded by 
high walls and thick belts of plantation, which exclude the action of the wind 
»on the interior sur&ce. We have suggested (p. 43. to 49.) the kind of 
reformation that we think requisite ; viz., hermetically sealing up all coffins 
deposited in vaults, catacombs, or brick graves, in certain cases by embedding 
them in Roman cement ; and leaving a stratum of 6 ft. of earth, never on 
any account to be disturbed, over every coffin, except in the caJse of two 
coffins, as of a mother and child, deposited at the same time. To insure the 
non-disturbance of this stratum of 6 ft. of soil, we have suggested the use of 
a protecting stone, (p. 37.) In order to protect the skeleton in the case 
of the last-deposited body, in family or common graves, as well as in the 
case of graves in which only one interment has been made, we have also 
recommended (p. 6.) placing a protecting cover or permanent guard, of stone, 
slate, or even tiles, of the length and breadth of the coffin lid, directly over the 
coffin, there to remain for ever. In this way we would effectually secure the 
non-disturbance of human bones after they had been once committed to the 
soil ; and this, we consider, ought to be a grand object in the management of 
burying-grounds. 

We sincerely hope that this subject, and also other improvements which we 
have suggested, will be duly considered by the directors of cemeteries, as well as 
by Mr. Mackinnon (see p. 43, 44.) in his new bill now before parliament. 

J. Kj* Li» 

Bays watery March 28. 1843. 



CONTENTS. 



I. The Uses of Cemeteries, page 1. 

The main obgect ; a secondary object, 1. ; burying several bodies in the same 
grave ; burying in vaults, catacombs, &c. ; family graves ; common graves ; 
reopening of graves attended with the disinterment of bones ; human 
bones should never be disturbed or exposed ; graves of the Jews, 
Quakers, and Moravians ; data to proceed upon with reference to in- 
terments in the free soil, 2. ; decay of the muscular fibre ; great du- 
rability of human bones ; natural mummies ; prejudices in favour of being 
buried in dry soil ; practice of the New Zealanders, and the monks of 
the Convent of Mount Sinai, 3.; inconvenience attending the use of quick- 
lime in coffins ; mephitic gas, 4. ; burving-grounds of Les Innocents ; in- 
fectious agency in the neighbourhood of Fleet Ditch, 5. ; circumstances 
connected with the decomposition of dead bodies, which render situations 
unhealthy, or churches unsafe to attend, and which ought to influence 
persons attending churches, or renting houses, 5. note ; destruction of 
human bones; protection of the human skeleton by protecting-stones, or 
guards of flag-stone, slate, or tiles, 6. ; a hint may be taken from the practice 
in Asia Minor, 6. note; space of ground required for a single interment; 
spaces in an acre ; space required for the population of London ; space 
for England and Wales ; various modes adopted in Scotland for the secu- 
rity of the grave ; iron gratings , iron boxes or safes, &c., 7. ; influence of 
cemeteries in improving the moral feelings, 8. ; Pere la Chaise, 9. ; garden 
cemeteries, 10.; mfluence of ceilieteries in improving the manners and ex- 
tending virtuous and generous feelings, 11. ; in improving the taste, 12. ; 
churchyards and cemeteries serve as historical records, 13. 

II. The Laying out, Building, and Planting of Cemeteries, 14. 

iSituation ; soil ; extent, 14. ; boundary fence ; laying out the interior, 15. ; 
throwing the interior into imaginary squares, 16.; objections to this 
mode, 17. ; situations of graves; roads; walks, and green paths, 18.; 
chapel or chapels ; yard and sheds ; lodges of the London cemeteries, 19. ; 
introduction of trees and shrubs, 20. ; kinds and mode of planting ; 
flowers, 21.; borders of shrubs or flowers for cemeteries, 22. ; buildings, 
23.; descending biers in the Kensal Green and Norwood Cemetery 
chapels, 24.; entrance lodge of the Tower Hamlets Cemetery, 25.; vaults 
and catacombs, 26. ; brick graves, 27. ; earth graves ; sepulchral monu- 
ments, 28. ; monumental tallies ; mode of arranging graves and forming 
solid foundations for gravestones in cemeteries and churchyards, 29.; 
cenotaphs ; walls ; drams ; cemetery implements, 30. ; grave-boards of 
the Nunhead Cemetery, 31. ; of the Tower Hamlets Cemetery, 32. ; 
"dumcraft" used in the Musselburgh burying-ground, 33. ; grave-box, 34. ; 
grave-platform ; grave-cover, 35. ; grave-mould ; clergyman's shelter ; 
roots and plants, 36. 

III. The Working and Management of Cemeteries, 36. 

Rules, 37. to 39. ; protecting-stones ; embedding coffins in Roman cement, 38. 
(We have since learned that this mode is in use in the vaults of the 
Baptist chapel in Henrietta Street, Brunswick Square) ; principle of 
fixmg the amount to be paid for keeping tombs, gravestones, &c., in 
repair; monuments in Grey Friars* churchyard in Edinburgh, and the 



VI CONTENTS. 

Cathedral burying-ground at Glasgow, 39. ; burying side by side, one 
coffin in a grave, and not above 6 or 8 feet deep, preferable to placing 
one coffin over another in deep graves, 40. ; most economical mode of 
using the ground in a cemetery, 41. ; cemetery books required ; cemetery 
curator, 43. 

IV. Certain Innovations suggested relative to the Selection of 
Ground for Cemeteries, Mode op performing Funerals^ etc., 43. 

Proposed substitute for Mr. Mackinnon's bill, 43. ; every sect, and every trade 
and profession, may have its separate cemetery ; individuals may form ce- 
meteries as commercial speculations ; when cemeteries should be opened 
as public gardens, 44.; clearing out of public vaults suggested; se- 
pulchral burial no security against desecration, 45. ; the vaults under the 
church at Kowna on the Niemen in 1813, 45. note; grass graves placed 
side by side, in a small green enclosure, far preferable to brick graves or 
vaults ; anecdote of Sir Francis Chan trey and Allan Cunningham; ex- 
traordinary proposal of the directors of the Kensal Green Cemetery, 46. ; 
interment of paupers, and of the poor generally, 47 ; proposed use of 
quicklime by certain members of parliament ; suggestions with a view to 
the interment of the poor, 48. ; temporary cemeteries ; land near Acton, 
Bagshot Heath, and at Chertsey, suitable for a cemetery ; places of tem- 
porary deposit for the dead, as at Frankfort and Munich, suggested ; 
cemeteries along the railroads, 49. ; expense of funerals ; Shillibeer's 
funeral carriage; Jukes's truck-hearse, 50.; hand-biers for walking 
funerals ; type and array of funeral processions, 51 ; remarkable proof of 
genuine respect for the feelings and wishes of the dead, 51. note, and 52. 

V. Design for a Cemetery of moderate Extent on level Ground, 

exemplified in one now being formed at Cambridge, 52. 

The ground ; the object ; the duties of the reporter ; the principles by which 
he was guided, 53. ; the general arrangement ; the buildings ; the grounds, 
54. ; details, 56. ; capacitv of the cemetery, and the probable annual ex- 
pense and returns, 59. ; the mode of conducting the cemetery, 61. ; the 
borders ; beds in the interior ; graves or vaults under the terrace ; 
reserve spaces ; earth graves, 62. ; brick graves, and the space they 
occupy ; vaults ; books required for conducting the Cambridge Cemetery, 
63. ; specification of the work to be done on the ground, including the 
formation of the walks, drains, &c., 64. ; estimate of expense ; rules and 
regulations for the management of the cemetery ; duty of the secretary ; 
duties of the curator, 65. 

Vr. Design for a Cemetery on hilly Ground, 66. 

VII. The present State of the London Cemeteries, considered 

CHIEFLY AS CeMETERY GaRDENS, 67. 

Objections to catacombs, and the mode of closing them ; to the distance at 
which coffins are placed apart in graves containing more than one coffin ; 
coffins should be separated by a layer of earth 6 ft. in thickness ; protect- 
ing-stones, 67. ; separating coffins by iron bars only, objectionable; the 
imaginary-square system imperfect; want of drainage; badly laid out 
roads, 68. ; want of gravel walks ; the planting of cemeteries too much in 
the style of a common pleasure-ground ; the Norwood Cemetery as it is, 
and as it might be ; planting without properly preparing the soil ; tomb- 
stones, 69. ; keeping of the new London cemeteries ; Eastern mode of 
planting cemeteries ; Turkish burying-grounds, 70. ; Cemetery of Eyub, 
71. ; Persian cemeteries ; Cemetery of Hafiz, 72. ; Cemetery of the Vale 
of Tombs, 73. ; Chinese cemeteries, 74, 75. 




J 



CONTENTS- Vn 

VIII. Country Churchyards ; their present State, and Means of 

Improvement, 74. 

Influence of the churchyard on the local poor ; on strangers, 74. ; want of 
order, 76. ; want of perpendicularity in the monuments and gravestones ; 
the slovenly state of the grass and herbage, 78. ; a churchyard as it is, 
and as it might be improved, 77. 79. ; desecration ; churchyard of Car- 
low, 80* ; want of trees and shrubs, 81.; want of monuments, 82; 
churchyard at St. Michael's, Dumfries ; fees for permission to erect 
gravestones and other memorials, 83. note; laying out and planting a 
new churchyard, 84. ; unique burying-ground of Hanover Chapel, 
Brighton, 85. ; situation and soil ; the size of the church and the extent 
of the churchyard, 86. ; the site of the church ; ground plan ; boundary 
fence, 87. ; wdks ; grassy surface ; trees, 88. ; kinds of trees, 89. 92. ; 
system of interments in churchyards, 90. ; isometrical view and plan of a 
churchyard systematically laid out, 91. 93. ; the church, 92. ; the par- 
sonage house and grounds ; Dunchurch vicarage, 94* 

IX. List of Trees, Shrubs, and perennial herbaceous Plants, 

ADAPTED for CeMETERIES AND CHURCHYARDS, 95. 

Evergreen Trees. 

With needle leaves, and the branches fastigiate and vertical, 95. 
With needle leaves, of narrow conical forms, the branches horizontal, 95. 
With needle leaves, conical in shape, the branches horizontal, but somewhat 

taller than those before enumerated, 96. 
With needle leaves, less conical in shape, but peculiarly suitable for church- 
yards and cemeteries, 96. 
With needle leaves, of conical shape, the branches horizontal, but of larger 

growth than the preceding kinds, 96. 
With needle leaves, of conical shapes the branches horizontal, but attaining 
a large size, which nevertheless admit of being cut in so as to form narrow 
conical trees suitable for large cemeteries, 97* 
Of the same kind attaining a less size, 97. 
With chaff>like leaves of a singular appearance, and well adapted for church* 

yards and cemeteries, 97. 
With needle leaves and pendent branches, peculiarly well adapted for being 
used in cemeteries, so as to droop over monuments, 97. 
With broad leaves^ of small size and narrow conical forms, which may be used 
in cemeteries, 98. 

Of less fastigiate forms, and small size, 98. 
Of the same kind, less fastigiate, and of larger size, 98. 
With broad leaves and shoots more or less pendulous, adapted for being 
planted singly to hang over graves, 98. 

Decidtums Trees. 

Needle-leaved treesy of fastigiate shapes, which may be used in churchyards, 
99. 
With pendulous branches, 99. 
Broad4eaved trees, of fastigiate forms and small size, 99. 

Of larger size, 99. 
Low trees, with round compact heads, 99. 

Of small size, with heads more or less irregular, most of which are remark- 
able for the beauty of their flowers or fruit, 100. 
Of larger size, remarkable for the beauty of their flowers, or the singularity 

or fragrance of their leaves, 101. 
With pendulous branches, adapted for being planted singly by monuments, 
or over graves as substitutes for monuments (Trauerbaume, or Trees of 
Sorrow, Ger.), 102. 



Vlll CONTENTS. 

Evergreen Shrubs, 

With needle leaves, and the plants of great duration, all well adapted for 

cemeteries where shrubs are introduced, 103. 
With broad leaves, and the plants of great duration, 103. 

Decidtcous Shrubs, 
Broad-leaved shrubs, the plants of compact growth and of long duration, 
adapted for cemeteries, 104. 

Low Trees and Shrubs far Walls, 
Select low trees or shrubs for a cemetery or churchyard wall, where the 
expense of training is not an object. 

Evergreen or subevergreen, 106. Deciduous, 107. 

Climbers. 
Climbing shrubs, adapted for a wall where the ground is not dug. 

Evergreen, 107. Deciduous, 108. 

Climbing shrubs, where there is a dug border. 

Evergreen or subevergreen, 108. Deciduous, 109. 

« Uhdershrubs* 

Undershrubs of very small size, frequently planted over graves. 
Evergreen, 109. Deciduous, 109. 

Shrubs for grafting standard high. 

List of shrubs which, when grafted standard high, form ornamental plants 

of singular shapes and habits of growth, well adapted for planting singly 

beside graves or tombstones, for marking any particular spot, or for 

creating variety in a shrubbery walk, or in the glades of a pleasure-ground. 

Evergreen, 109. Deciduous, 109. 

Perennial herbaceous Plants adapted for Cemeteries and Churchyards, 

With strong under-ground buds, and compact heads, that do not require 
the support of stakes, 1 10. 
With the same properties, except that the roots are less compact, though 
still not creeping. 111. 
Of vigorous growth and compact habit, but which do not lose the whole 

of their foliage in winter, 112. 
Evergreen herbaceous plants of compact habit, which will grow on a grassy 

surface, 112. 
Herbaceous plants of bold growth, which produce many upright stems ; 
and in exposed situations will require stakes from the middle of June till 
September or October, 113. 
With creeping roots, which will thrive on a grassy surface, and may there- 
fore be mtroduced in burying-grounds or on lawns, 113. 

BuJbsy 113. Femsy 114. 

Plants used as Badges, 

Plants which form national badges, 1 14. 

Plants which form the badges of the Highland clans, 114. 

Supplementary Engravings, 114. 

Entrance lodge to the Newcastle Cemetery, 1 15. 

Covering tiles used in the chapel of the Cambridge Cemetery, 116. 

APPENDIX .... 115. 



ON 



^2 



LAYING OUT CEMETERIES, 



AND ON THE 



IMPROVEMENT OF CHURCHYARDS, 

ETC. 



J. HE circumstance of being emploved by the Directors of a Cemetery Com- 
pany at Cambridge to form a plan K>r their guidance in arranging the ground , 
and in working and managing the cemetery afterwards, led us to study the 
principles on which all the arrangements connected with cemeteries are, or 
ought to be, founded, and the following pages contain the general results of 
our enquiries. The subjects discussed are : 

I. The Uses of Cemeteries. 

II. The Laying out, Planting, and Architecture of Cemeteries, with a view 
to these uses. 

III. The Working and Management of Cemeteries. 

IV. Certain Innovations suggested, relative to the Selection of Ground for 

Cemeteries, and the Mode of performing Funerals, &c. 
V. A Design for a small Cemetery on level Ground, of moderate extent, 
exemplified in a cemetery now being formed at Cambridge, illus- 
trated by a plan, sections, and an isometrical view. 
VI. Design for a Cemetery on hilly Ground, with an isometrical view. 
'VII. The present State of the London Cemeteries, considered as cemetery 

gardens. 
VIII. The Improvement and Extension of Country Churchyards, illustrated 
by plans. 
IX. A List of Trees, Shrubs, and perennial herbaceous Plants, adapted for 
Cemieteries and Churchyards. 

I. The Uses of Cemeteries. 

As, to know the best mode of applying the principles of design to any par- 
ticular object, it is necessary to know the purposes for which that object is 
intended, we shall commence by considering the uses for which cemeteries or 
burial-grounds are required. 

The main object of a burial-ground is, the disposal of the remains of the 
dead in such a manner as that their decomposition, and return to the earth 
from which they sprung, shall not prove injurious to the living; either by 
affecting their health, or shocking their feelings, opinions, or prejudices. 

A secondary object is, or ought to be, the improvement of tne moral senti- 
ments and general taste of all classes, and more especially of the great 
masses of society. 



2 ON LAYING OUT CEMETERIES* 

With respect to the first and most important object, the decomposition of 
the dead, without the risk of injury to the living, there is, as we think, but 
one mode in which this can he effected, to which there can be no objection on 
the part of the living ; and that is, interment in a wooden coffin in the free 
soil, in a grave 5 or 6 feet deep, rendered secure from being violated, in which 
no body has been deposited before, or is contemplated to be deposited there* 
after. 

Varions circumstances, however, into which it is needless to enquire-, have 
given rise to burying several bodies in the same grave in the free soil, and 
to modes of sepulture by which the decomposition of the body, or at least 
its union with the earth, is prevented ; such as the use of leaden or iron 
coffins,, and depositing them m vaults, catacombs,, and other structures, in 
which they can never,, humanly speaking, except in the case of some great 
change or convulsion, be minglea with the soil, or, in the beautiful language 
of Scripture, be returned to the dust from which they sprung. Though 
we are of opinion that the modes of burial which prevent the body from 
mixing with the soil, which, for the sake of distinction, we shaH call the sepul- 
chral modes, cannot, on account of the danger to the living, be continued 
much longer in a highly civilised country, yet, in considering the conditions 
requisite for a complete cemetery suiteid to the present time, the various 
modes of sepulchral buria) at present in use must be kept iir view. The 
expense of the sepulchral mode, however, confines it to the comparatively 
wealthy ; and hence by far the greater part of burial-grounds always 
was, and is, necessarily devoted to interments in the free soil. In some 
churchyards where there is abundance of room, only one coffin is deposited 
in a grave ; but in most cases, and particularly m the burial-grounds of 
large towns, the graves are dug very deep, and several coffins, sometimes as 
many as a dozen, or even more, according to the depth of the grave, are 
deposited one over another, till they reach within 5 or 6 feet of the surface* 
Interments in this manner are of two kinds. The first are made in^ family 
graves, fn which the di^rent members of the same family are deposited in 
succession, in the order of their decease ; and to such graves there is always 
a grave-stone or some kind of monument. The second are what are called 
common graves, to which there is no monument, and in which the bodies of 
the poor and of paupers are deposited, in the order in which they are brought 
to the cemetery ; probably two or three in one day, or possibly as many in 
one day as will fill the grave. Unless this mode were adopted in the public 
cemeteries, they would, from their present limited extent, very soon be 
filled up. Such graves, whether public or private, in the newly formed ceme- 
teries, when once filled with coffins to within 6 fl. of the sur&ce, are under- 
stood never ta be reopened ; but, in the old burial-grounds, they are in many 
cases opened afler being closed only four or five years, and sometimes much 
sooner* 

When the parties burying cannot afford to purchase a private or family 
grave, the practice is, in some burial-grounds, to bury singly in graves of the 
ordinary depth of 6 or 7 feet, and these graves are reopened for a similar 
purpose in six or seven years ; but, as this is attended with the disinterment 
of the bones, it is a very objectionable mode. In a burial-ground properly ar- 
ranged and managed, a coffin, afler it is once interred, should never again be 
exposed to view, nor a human bone be disturbed. At present this is. only the 
case in the cemeteries of the Jews, where there is a separate grave for every 
coffin, and where the graves are never reopened. It is also the case in the 
cemeteries of the Quakers ; though not, we believe, from religious principle, 
as in the case of the Jews, but rather from that general regard to decency and 
propriety which is a characteristic of that sect of Christians, and perhaps, as 
m the case of the Moravians, in consequence of their comparatively limited 
number. 

As data to proceed upon with reference to interments in the free soil, it is 
necessary to state that the muscular part of the body either decays rapidly* 



USES OF CEMETEBIES. 3 

or dries up rapidly, according to the circumstances in which it is placed ; but 
that the bones do not decay, even under circumstances the most favourable 
for that purpose, for centuries. 

The face of a dead body deposited in the free soil is generally destroyed in 
three or four months, but the thorax and abdomen undergo very little change, 
except in colour, till the fourth month. The last part of the muscular fibre 
which decays is the upper part of the thigh, whicn in some subjects resists 
putrefaction for four or five years. In general, a body is considered unfit for 
dissection after it has been interred eight or nine weeks. In a very dry 
and warm soil, especially where the body is emaciated, the juices are 
rapidly absorbed ; and, no moisture coming near it, the solids contract and 
harden, and a species of mummy is OToduced. This may be observed 
in the vaults of various churches in Britain where the soil and situa^ 
tion are remarkably dry ; and it has given rise to those appalling scenes 
which may be witnessed in the vaults of Bremen, Vienna, Home, Naples, 
Palermo, Malta, and other places. (See Necropolis Gkugueruis, p. 48. to 55, ; 
and Stephens's Incidents of Traud, as quoted in the Saturday Magazine, vol. 
XX. p. 141.) 

Bones are chiefly composed of phosphate of lime deposited in gelatine, 
an animal tissue ; and, unless acted on by powerful acids, they will en- 
dure, either in the soil or in the atmosphere, for many centuries. They 
Bre even found in the fossil state, and after ages of exposure often contain 
more or less of the original animal tissue, particularly if they have been 
embedded in clayey soil. In the ante-hominal part of the creation, there 
are bones daily discovered which have existed 6000 years at least. Dr. 
•Charles Loudon informs us that he has seen numerous human bones in 
certain caves near to Naples, which are supposed to be those of the Grecian 
colonists who settled there before the Christian era, or perhaps those of 
an older race who inhabited Magna Oraecia.* Dr. Loudon has seen several 
skeletons dug out of the ruins of JPompeii, the bones of which were as dry and 
entire as the bones of skeletons which we see in dissecting-rooms, though 
they must have Iain there nearly 1800 vears under the lava, which, around 
them, seemed to be a dry greyish kind of earth. Even while writing this, we 
read in the newspapers (Mom, Chron,, Jan. 10.) of the workmen, while digging 
a deep sewer in Lad Lane in the city, having cut into what is supposed to have 
been a cemetery of the Romans, and dug up a number of human bones. 

With respect to prejudices, there is, as every one knows, a decided prejudice 
in favour of being buried in dry soil, and against the placing of decomposing 
substances, such as quicklime, in coffins ; and it is one of our principles to 
respect existing prejudices as well as vested rights. With regard to the use 



* The desire to preserve the bones from decay seems natural to man, both 
in a rude and a civilised state. Dr. Diefienbach informs us that the New 
Zealanders expose the bodies of their dead, in a sort of canoe-shaped coffin, 
among the foliage of trees, for several months, till the flesh is sufficiently 
decomposed ; the bones are then washed and cleaned, and finallv deposited 
in some secret spot in a wood, or in a limestone cavern, of which there are 
many, or in some chasm of the rocks difficult of access. The bodies of 
hereditary chiefs are dressed and ornamented, and preserved in mausoleums 
of elaborately carved work ; but, even in this case, after a time, the tohunga, 
or priest, removes the bones to a place in the forest often known only to 
himself. {Travels in New Zealand, ii. p. 63.) The monks of the Convent of 
Mount Sinai, Mr. Stephens informs us, bury their dead for about three years, 
after which they take them up, clean the bones, and deposit them in one preat 
pit ; except those of the archbishops, which are preserved separately m an 
adjoining sepulchre, some in baskets, some on shelves, and others tied together 
and hanging from the roof« (Incidents o/TraveL) 

B 2 



4 ON LATINO OUT CEMETEBIES. 

of quicklime ; independently of the existing prejudices against its introduction 
in coffins, it is found to cause the solution of the softer parts of the body, 
which, unless the coffin is watertight, and this is rarely the case with the 
coffins either of the poor or of the middling class, oozes out to such an 
extent that the undertaker's men can scarcely carry the coffin, on account of 
the flow of matter and the odour. 

The health of the Uving is chiefly affected by a certain description of 
gas, respecting which it is necessary to enter into some detail. The de- 
composition of the muscular part of the human body takes place with 
different degrees of rt^idity in different soils, and at different depths in 
the same soil. It is most rapid in sandy soils somewhat moist, within 3 
or 4 feet of the surface, and in a warm climate ; it is next in rapidity in chalky 
soils ; much slower in clayey soils; and slowest of all in peaty soil, saturated 
with astringent moisture. In general, dry soil, and a moderate distance of 
5 or 6 feet below the surface, are favourable both to decomposition and human 
prejudices. In such soil, in the climate of London, the muscular part of the 
-numan body will have become a black mould in between six and seven 
years ; but, practically speaking, the bones may be considered as indestruc* 
tible. In the progress of decay, the first change which takes place im- 
mediately after death is, the escape of a deleterious gas from the mouth 
and nostrils, but generally in so small a quantity as not to be perceptible 
for three or four days. In some cases, it is perceptible in a much shorter 
period ; and in all a gas accumulates within the body, which escapes sooner or 
later according to the progress of the putrescent process. If the body is 
buried in the free soil, in a wooden coffin, to the depth of 5 or 6 feet, the gas 
escapes into the soil, and is, in part at least, absorbed by it, and con- 
sequently does not contaminate the air above the surface ; but, if a leaden 
coffin is used, and the body is deposited in a vault, < catacomb, or brick 
grave, the gas escapes within the coffin, and either remains there till 
the coffin decays, or escapes through crevices in the lead, and through 
small holes bored on purpose by the undertaker in the outer wooden 
coffin and leaden inner coffin, and concealed by the name-plate. (^Report on 
the Health of Towng, Walker, <^c.) By the last mode the gas begins to escape 
before the corpse is taken from the house ; and its effect is often felt there, 
as well as when the service is being read over it in the chapel, and even afber 
it is deposited in a vault, the catacombs of which, though apparently her- 
metically sealed, are seldom air-tight. Sometimes the bodv, especially of 
a corpulent person, swells so much before it is removed n^om the house, 
that it is ready to burst both the inner and the outer coffin ; and in that case 
it requires to be tapped, and the gas burnt as it escapes, or the operation 
performed close to an open window. Even in some of the public catacombs 
of the new London cemeteries explosions have been known to take place, 
and the undertaker obliged to be sent for in order to resolder the coffin ; which 
shows the disgusting nature of this mode of interment, and its danger to the 
living. To inhale this gas, undiluted with atmospheric air, is instant death ; 
and, even when much diluted, it is productive of disease which commonly ends 
in death, of which there is abundant evidence in Walker's Grave-Yards and 
the Parliamentary Report quoted. The gas abounds to a fearful extent in 
the soil of all crowded burial-grounds, and has been ^proved to be more or 
les^ present in the soil thrown out of graves where bodies have been interred 
before. Even in the new London cemeteries, when interments are made in 
family graves, or common graves, which have been filled in with earth, such is 
the smell when the grave-diggers arrive within 2 or 3 feet of the last deposited 
coffin, that they are obliged to be plied constantly with rum to induce them 
to proceed. This is more particularly the case when graves are dug in strong 
clay, because the gas cannot escape laterally as in a gravelly or sandy soil, but 
rises perpendicularly through th6 soil which has been moved. The remedy 
for this evil is, never to allow a family grave, or a common grave, in which an 
interment has been made, to be excavated deeper than within 6 ft. of the last 



USES or CEMETERIES. 5 

dieposited coffin ; and, to make sure of this, there ouefat to be a protecting 
stone, or slate, to be hereafter described, deposited when the grave is being 
filled, at the height of 6 ft. above the last coffin, under a severe penalty. It 
is only by some regulation of this kind, that burying several coffins in deep 
graves can be conducted without injuring the health of grave-diggers ; and 
without the gas, which escapes from the earth brought up, endangering the 
health of those who may be occasional spectators. 

In the years 1782 and 1783, when the disinterment of the burying-grounds 
of Les Innocents in Paris took place under the direction of some eminent 
French chemists, these philosophers endeavoured to analyse this gas, but were 
unable to procure it. Fourcroy, speaking in their name, says : — ** In vain we 
endeavoured to induce the grav&-diggers to procure any of this elastic fluid. 
They uniformly refused, declaring that it was only by an unlucky accident 
they interfered with dead bodies m that dangerous state. The horrible odour 
and the poisonous activity of this fluid announce to us that if it is mingled, as 
there is no reason to doubt, with hydrogenous and azotic gas holding sulphur 
and phosphorus in solution, ordinary and known products of putre&ction, it 
may contain also another deleterious vapour, whose nature has hitherto 
escaped philosophical research, while its terrible action upon life is too 
strikmgly evinced. These Paris grave-diggers know,** Fourcroy adds, "that 
the greatest danger to them arises from the disengagement of this vapour from 
the abdomen of carcasses in a state of incipient putrefaction." (See Annalet 
de Chimie, vol. v. p. 154., as quoted in Walker's Grave-Yards, p. 86. ; and 
Ure^s Dictionary of Chemistry ^ art. Adipocere.) 

Wliile this inflation from gas is going forward, the aqueous part of decom- 
position, a ** fetid sanies," exudes from the body, and sometimes, when inter- 
ment is delayed too long, to such an extent as to drop from the coffin 
before it is taken out of the house. This exudation, as already observed, is 
greatly accelerated and increased by putting quicklime into the coffin. In the 
f^ee soil this fetid sanies is diffused by the rain in the subsoil, and carried 
along in the water of the subsoil to its natural outlet, or to the wells which 
may be dug into it ; and thus, while the gas of decomposition poisons both 
the earth and the air, the fluid matter contaminates the water.* 



* Speaking of the infectious agency in the houses in the neighbourhood of 
that part of London called Fleet Ditch, Dr. Lynch observes :-—" The great 
primary cause is, that the privies are in general under the staircase of the 
wretched hovels of the poor, and the sulphuretted hydrogen, and the carbo- 
nated hydrogen, and the noxious gases there generated, are the same gases as 
are generated from the dead bodies in a state of decomposition ; for the eva- 
cuations from the body are decomposed animal and vegetable matter, and a 
dead body is the same, it is decomposition of the dead body, or a generid 
state of disorganisation, and that produces exactly the same kind of gases. 
There have been instances mentioned, where people have fallen down dead 
from a rush of those gases in a concentrated form." (Report on Health of 
Townt^ &c., p. 161.) 

If the pubuc were fully aware of the dangerous nature of the gases which 
proceed from the decomposition of dead bodies in crowded churchyards, and 
in vaults and catacombs, and of the poisonous nature of the water of de- 
composition, 

1. They would not live in houses bordering on churchyards, which, though 
already full, are still used as burying-grounds. 

2. They would not drink the water of wells dug in the vicinity of burial- 
grounds, whether in town or country ; because, though the filtration of the 
soil will purify the water from matter suspended in it, it will not free it from 
what is held in solution 

3. They would not attend service in any church or chapel whatever, in 

B 3 



6 ON LAYING OUT CEMETERIES. 

With regard to the destruction of human hones, we assume that to be 
impracticable, otherwise than by means which are altogether out of the 
question. The most favourable soil for their decomposition is a coarse 
gravel, subject to be alternately moist and &ry ; but, though such a soil, so 
circumstanced in regard to water, might be found naturally, or might be conn- 

Eosed by art, yet these cases may be considered as equally impracticable.* 
nstead, therefore, of endeavouring to destroy the human skeleton, let us 
limit our endeavours to preventing it from being desecrated by disinterment 
and exposure. This may be effected in various ways ; but by far the most 
simple, effectual, and economical, as it appears to us, would be to place over 
the coffin, after it was deposited in the grave, a stone or slate of the same 
dimensions as the coffin, or even as many flat 12-incb tiles, say six, as would 
extend from head to foot. As the coffin and the muscular part of its contents 
decayed and sunk down, the stone, slate, or tiles, would follow it and press^ 
close on the bones. In consequence of this arrangement, when the ground 
was at any future period opened to the depth of the stone, slate, or tile, guard, 
it would be known that a skeleton was beneath, and the operator would cease 
to go farther; or, at all events, it should be rendered illegal for him to do so. 
If a name and date were graven in the stone, being protected from atmo- 
spheric changes, it would remain uninjured for ages, and, like the foot-marks 
which geologists have found in the red sandstone, might, in some far distant 
age, become part of the geological history of our globe. We prefer stone or 
tile guards, to guards of metal, because iron would soon rust, and cease to 
be a guard, and lead or any equally durable metal would offer a temptation to 
stealing. A layer two or three inches thick of stucco, Roman cement, or 
a plate of asphalte or oropholithe, might be used as a substitute ; but stone, 
slate, and tiles are decidedly preferable. The slate might even be introduced 
within the coffin, without rendering it heavier to carry than if a lead coffin were 
used. Burying in a coffin made entirely of stone or slate we do not consider 
so likely to prevent desecration as a stone or slate guard ; because there is a 
temptation to dig up the lower part of the stone coffin, and use it as a drink- 
ing-trough for cattle, or a cistern for a flower-garden, which is done in various 
places in the vicinity of old abbeys. A stone hollowed out on the under 
side might be better than a flat stone ; because the depending edges would 



the vaults of which there were coffins, or in the floors of which interments 
had taken place. They would absent themselves from all such places, even 
if there were no immediate danger, in order, by such means as were in their 
power, to contribute to the discountenance of a practice by all parties allowed 
to be attended with disgusting and injurious results. 

4. Nor would they live in houses in which the privies were not either ren- 
dered water-closets, or placed detached from the house. 

5. Nor in a house adjoining an open sewer. 

6. Nor would they keep a dead body in the house more than five days, or 
at the most a week. 

* If the bones were to be destroyed in the case of a single grave, a hint 
might be taken from the following passage in Fellowes's Asia Minor. *' The 
outward marks of respect are scarcely visible in their burial-grounds, little 
more being left to mark the place of interment than a row of stones indicat- 
ing the oblong form of the grave ; but a pipe or chimney, generally formed of 
wood or earthenware, rises a few inches above the ground, and communicates 
with the corpse beneath ; and down this tube libations are poured by the 
friends of the deceased to the attendant spirit of the dead." (vol. xi. p. 16.) 
Were the libations withheld for five or six years, till the muscular part of the 
body was completely destroyed, and then diluted muriatic acid employed 
as a libation, the result would probably be obtained in the course of a year 
or two. 



USES OF CEMETERIES, 7 

be a kind of side protection to the skeleton ; and miffht, together with the 
name graven on the upper «ide, procure more respect ^om those who should 
fall upon it accidentally in future ages, in excavating for improvements. 

The space of ground required for a single interment, and for the interments 
incident to any given population, requires next to be taken into consideration. 
If all interments took place in the free soil, if a grave were allowed for 
each coffin, and the grave were never afterwards to be opened, that is, 
not opened for several generations, then the space required for cemeteries 
would be considerable. Thus, supposing graves without head-stones or orna- 
ments of any kind to occupy a surface of 7 ft. by 3 ft. 6 in., and the average 
area of those having gravestones or monuments to be 10 ft. by 5 ft., then, 
making an allowance for grass paths between the graves, and for gravel 
roadsj we may take 8 ft. by 4 ft. as the average space on which to 
calculate the cwp a ciiy of a garden or ornamental cemetery. This will 
give 1361 graves to an acre; and, estimating the deaths in a town popu- 
lation at 3 per cent per annum, this acre would suffice for a population 
of 1000 souls for 45 years; or for a population of 45,000 for one year. 
Taking the population of London to be 1,500,000, this would require 33 acres 
annually, or the whole of that part of Middlesex not covered by London and 
its suburbs (128,540 acres) in the course of 3895 years. The average number 
of deaths annually in England and Wales has been ascertained to be about 
336,000, which, at 1361 interments to an acre, would require 247 acres 
annually; or, supposing three interments in each grave 82 acres per annum. 
On the supposition that ground once occupied by graves was for ever after- 
wards to be held sacred, and not subjected to cultivation of any kind ; the 
mode of interment which would require so large a sacrifice of surface an- 
nually may be considered as impracticable ; and, for our present purpose, this 
is the view that we shall take of it. We shall, however, hereafter snow how 
separate graves may be procured, not only for those who cannot afford grave- 
stones, but even for paupers ; and these graves never again opened for gene- 
rations. In the meantime, the mode of burying several coffins in one grave, 
provided these coffins are of wood, and layers of soil not less than 6 ft. in 
thickness interposed, and the graves, when once filled, not opened for genera- 
tions, appears the best adapted for the present state of things. Supposing 
that on an average three interments take place in each grave or vault before 
it is finally closed, this will give upwards of 4000 interments to the acre; and, 
as the eisht public cemeteries recently formed in the neighbourhood of the 
metropohs, and the unoccupied part of the new burial-grounds recently formed 
by diTOrent sections of the Dissenters, contain upwards of 300 acres mclusive 
of the space occupied by roads and buildings, this will probably supply the 
demand tor two centuries to come, even allowing the population to increase. 

The security of the grave was, till within these tew years, an important 
part of the considerations requisite to be had in view in constructing ceme- 
teries. In some cases it was effected by surrounding the enclosure by high 
walls, or other effective fences ; sometimes by constructing central watch- 
towers for stationary watchmen within ; sometimes by employing perambulat- 
ing watchmen ; at others by burying in a grave 15 or 20 feet deep ; by burying 
in a walled grave, covered with an iron grating built into the walls all round, 
some feet beneath the surface soil, and keeping the surface loose, and planted 
with flowers or shrubs (which, as the grave could not be disturbed without 
first taking these up, would by their withered state, when replanted, have told 
what had been attempted) ; and sometimes by the very extraordinary mode of 
letting down over the coffin a ponderous cast-iron box, to remain over it for 
six or eight weeks, till the body was considered to be so far decomposed as to 
be unfit for the purposes ot the anatomist. The iron box, or case, which 
had remained whelmed over the coffin, but without touching it, was then 
disinterred, and drawn up by machinery, and the wooden coffin was covered 
with soil, and the grave completed a second time in the usual manner. 
Even the poorest fiEUwlies,in some parts of Scotland, went to this extraordinary 

B 4 



8 ON LAYING OUT CEMETERIES. 

expense. Fortunately a law has been passed which renders these precautions 
unnecessary, and we shall therefore take no farther notice of them. 

The secondary object of cemeteries, that of improving the moral feeSngt^ will 
be one of the results of the decorous attainment of the main object ; for it 
must be obvious that the first step to rendering the churchyard a source of 
amelioration or instruction is, to render it attractive. So fer from this being 
the case at present, they are in many instances the reverse, often presenting, 
in London and other large town8,ablack unearthly-looking surface, so frequently 
disturbed by intermente that no grass will grow upon it* ; while, in the country, 
the churchyard is commonly covered with rank grass abounding in tall weeds, and 
neglected grave-stones. Cemeteries in this state •* lose their monitory virtue 
when thus obtruded upon the notice of men occupied with the cares of the 
world, and too often sullied and defiled by those cares." No wonder that, 
under such circumstances, the burial-grounds, more especially of towns, are 
shunned and avoided, rather than sought after as places for meditation. Even 
under the most favourable circumstances, the associations which are generally 
attached to churchyards are gloomy and terrific. 

" The Grave ! dread thing. 

Men shiver when thou 'rt named : Nature, appall'd. 
Shakes off her wonted firmness. Ah ! how dark 
The long extended realms and rueful wastes, 
Where nought but silence reigns, and night, dark night ! 

The sickly taper. 

By glimmering throup;h thy low-brow 'd mirky vaults, 
Furr'd round with misty damps and ropy slime. 
Lets fall a supernumerary horror. 
And only serves to make thy night more irksome." 

** Why," says Washington Irving, " should we thus seek to clothe death 
with unnecessary terrors, and to spread horrors around the tomb of those we 
love? The grave should be surrounded by every thing that might inspire 
tenderness and veneration for the dead, or that might win the living to virtue. 
It is the place, not of disgust and dismay, but of sorrow and meditation." 
" Nothing can make amends," says Coleridge, " for the want of the soothing 
influences of nature, and for the absence of those types of renovation and 
decay which the fields and woods offer to the notice of the serious and con-^ 
templative mind. To feel the force of this sentiment, let a man only compare, 
in imagination, the unsightly manner in which our monuments are crowded 
together in the busy, noisy, unclean, and almost grassless churchyard of a 
large town, with the still seclusion of a Turkish cemetery in some remote 
place, and yet further sanctified by the grove of cypress in which it is em- 
bosomed." (^Coleridge's Friend.) 

" Let us be careful, however, in our anxiety to escape from gloom and horror, 
not to run into the opposite extreme of meretricious gaudiness. Death and 
the grave are solemn and awful realities ; they speak with a powerful and' 
intelligible voice to the heart of every spectator, as being the common lot of 
all. To say nothing of the bad taste, therefore, anything obtrusively pic- 
turesque, anything savouring of fashionable prettiness, any far-fetched conceits 



* The persons living in the houses which abut on the burial-ground of Bartho- 
lomew the Less, Dr. Lynch states, are in the habit of emptying their cham- 
ber-pots into it ; and the surface of the burial-ground of Bartholomew the 
Great, adjoining, is so covered with the excrementitious matter floated over 
from the cesspools of privies, that it is difiicult to walk across it. There is 
no hope of curing any person living in this quarter, when attacked by disease^ 
but by removal. (Z>r, Lynch ^ in -Report, &c. p. 16L} 



"» ^■'.F" 



\ 



USES OP CEMETERIES. 9 

or tortured allegories, jar upon the feelings of every well-regulated mind, and 
excite ideas the very opposite to those of sympathy and tenderness. Our 
cemeteries, then, should bear a solemn and soothmg character, equally remote 
from fanatical gloom and conceited aifectation. " {Picton, in ArcL Mag. iv. 
p. 430.) 

" Where is it, would we ask,*' says the learned and eloquent author of Ne- 
cropoUs Glasguensis, " that the innate desire which is felt in every bosom to 
live in the recollection of his companions, the pleasing hope that he may 
still be a remembered denizen of this fleeting world, is more likely to be 
realised than at the spot where his ashes are laid ? Where is it that the 
* Exfincta amabitur* such as Cicero professed to his daughter Tullia, and 
which is still the pledge of friendship offered at ^he couch of the dying, is 
more likely to be experienced in all its force and all its purity, than at the 
tomb where all that remains of worth and loveliness is lying ? Where is it, 
indeed, that the heart is likely to be so feelingly moved, or the memory to be 
so powerfully roused, as at a parent's grave or at a sister's tomb?" (p. 27.) 
After deploring the present state of Scottish churchyards, and contrasting 
them with some in England and Wales, our author has the following touching 
paragraphs on the Cemetery of Pere la Chaise, which, as they exhibit the 
heau ideal of what a general cemetery ought to be, in order to realise our 
ideas of its moral influence on the living, we shall quote as preferable to 
anything that we could say on the subject. 

" Who, that has ever visited the romantic Cemetery of Pere la Chuse, would 
not wish that there were, in this our native land, some nK>re attractive spot 
dedicated to the reception of the dead, than those vast fields of rude stones 
and ruder hillocks, to which we are ever and anon called, when attending 
the obsequies of a kinsman or companion ; that in fact there were here some 
such garden cemetery as that in the neighbourhood of Paris, whither the 
widowed heart might occasionally resort to hold spiritual communion with 
the departed partner of earthly joy or woe ; whither the weeping orphan 
might at times repair, to recall the worth and the virtues of his beloved parent. 
Within the extensive and delightfully variegated enclosure alluded to, situated 
on Mount Louis, it is perhaps unnecessary to state that all the disagreeable 
sensations which are here coupled with a churchvard are dispelled by the 
beauty of the garden, the variety of its walks, by tfie romantic nature of its 
situation, and, above all, by the commanding view of Paris and its environs 
which it affords. In that vast grove of the dead, each has his own grave, and 
each his own mausoleum. In place of the clumsy mound or large white 
stone that so generally covers the ashes of our countrymen, is to be found a 
little flower-garden surrounded by cedar, spruce, cypress, and ^ew trees, 
round which the rose and the honeysuckle are seen entwining; while, instead 
of a solitary and deserted churchyard, the eye meets at every turn with some 
pensive or kneeling figure weeping over the remains of a relative, or wor- 
shipping his God at the tomb of excellence and virtue. 

" The most common burial-places, and perhaps the most aflecting, in this ce- 
metery, consist of a square or parallelogram of ground, of about three or four 
yards broad, enclosed by a neat little railing of iron or wicker* work. Within 
this spot there is always a sepulchral urn, a small PJUar, or a cross, to tell 
the name and the quality of him who lies below. The remaining portion 
is filled with flowers, and embellished with pots of rare plants. The more 
ambitious monuments consist of obelisks, p) ramids, temples, and marble sar- 
cophagi, decorated ;vith figures and bassi rilievi; while a third consist of crvpts 
and family sepulchres in some degree similar to those of ancient Rome. Amid 
the green glades and gloomy cypresses which surround and overshadow the 
vast variety of sepulchral ornaments of Pere la Chaise, the contemplative mind 
is not only impressed with sentiments of solemn sublimity and religious awe, 
but with those of the most tender and heart-affecting melancholy. Vain man 
is recalled from the distracting turbulence and folly of the world, to the sa- 
lutary recollection *of that undiscovered country from which no traveller 



10 ON LAYING OUT CSMETEBIES. 

returns.' The eay and the giddy are reminded that their ' gibes and jokes * 
must ere while for ever cease, and are led to reflect that they too must die ; 
and, as ' by the sadness of the countenance the heart is made better,' the 
religious man, instructed on the narrowness of the boundary which separates 
him from those who were the 'sun and centre' of his nearest and dearest 
regards on earth, looks forward not only without fear, but with joy and 
exultation, to the period when, that boundary being for ever broken down, 
they shall, in their happy experience, find that, as they were loving and be- 
loved in their lives, ' in their deaths they were not divided/ In the mazes of 
Pere la Chaise, we feel walking as in the porch of eternity, and our heart is at 
once impressed with a sense of the evanescence and the value of time. There, 
the instability of all human affiurs is emphatically and eloquently taught by 
the dread silence of the tomb, and unequivocally beheld in the mere change 
which a few years have produced on the garden itself ; for, within the stately 
mansion whose ruins are now on every side surrounded by melancholy tombs, 
did the favourite confessor of Louis XIV., the most powerful and most per- 
secuting Jesuit of his time, erst pass his hours of pastime and of pleasure ; and 
the disciples of Jansenius and Molina now repose, in freedom and in peace, in 
that place to which, when alive, they did not dare even to approach ; while 
the fierce disputes which they mutually excited through the Christian world 
are fallen, like themselves, into n^lect and oblivion !* 

*' In Scotland it is of every-day occurrence, to find the lie given to the most 
pompous monuments, a few months after their erection, by the moss over- 
growing and obscuring the epitaph which vows and intends unceasing re- 
membrance of the dead. In the Cemetery of Mount Louis, however, the 
feeling of recollection is exemplified to live a very long time after the en- 
graving of the sepulchral stone and the wonted period prescribed to outward 
mourning. It is there the custom for surviving friends to visit the tombs of 
their relatives, and, as a token of recollection and respect to their memory, to 
weave a garland of flowers, and hang it on their monument. At every turn 
the eye is arrested by the tender proof of some late friendly visitation. 
Flowers, as yet fresh and unfaded, are seen scattered over the not yet verdant 
sod. The greenhouse myrtle flourishes in the parterre dedicated to affection 
and love ; the chaste forget-me-not blooms over the ashes of a faithful friend ; 
the green laurel shades the cenotaph of the hero ; and the drooping willow, 
planted by the hand of the orphan, weeps over the grave of the parent. 
Every thing is there tasteful, classical, poetical, and eloquent. In that asylum 
of death, there is nothing found save that which should touch the heart or 
soothe the afflicted soul, nothing save that which should awaken tender re- 
collections or excite religious feelings. In one word, the Cemetery of Pere 
la Chaise is the spot, of all others, dedicated to the genius of memory ; and 
the one where a more powerful sermon is daily preached than ever fell from 
the lips of a Fenelon, a Massillon, or a Bossuet. Here the bodies of the 



** * It is fi-om this confessor, Pere la Chaise, that the cemetery derives its 
appellation. By an edict in 1804, prohibiting burial in churches and inha- 
bited places, the garden and pleasure-grounds of the late confessor were con- 
verted into a burial-ground, chiefly for those persons of a higher circle who 
could afford to purchase a grave and rear a monument ; and, at this moment 
[1831], the whole of this extensive enclosure is nearly covered with tombs 
and monuments. [We have seen a Report on this cemetery, made to the 
French Government, dated 1842, by which it appears to be so much crowded 
as to require enlargement, and also that much ground has been lost in con- 
sequence of its not having been laid out originally on some systematic plan. 
In this Report the want of walks and roads, and of drainage, is particularly 
deplored, as well as the dilapidated and decaying state of the monuments.] 



j^^ 



USES OF CEMETERIES. 11 

people of every nation, of every condition, of every age, and of every religion, 
are found congregated. The Russ sleeps next to the Spaniard, the Protestant 
next the Catholic, the Jew next the Turk. Individuals the most dissimilar 
when alive, in faith, in feeling, in practice, are here reconciled amid the 
peace-making dust of the sepulchre.'* (Necropolis GUuguetuU, p. 32.) 

" A garden cemetery and monumental decoration are not only beneficial to 
public morals, to the improvement of manners, but are likewise calculated to 
extend virtuous and generous feeUnas, Affliction, brightened by hope, ever 
renders man more anxious to love nis neighbour. At the brink of the grave 
we are made most feelingly alive to the shortness and uncertainty of life, and 
to the danger of procrastinating towards God and man whatever it is our 
bounden duty to perform. There, too, the conscience is taught the value of 
mercy, and best feels the recompense which awaits the just in Heaven. 
There, the man whose heart the riches, titles, and dignities of the world have 
swollen with pride, best experiences the vanity of all earthly distinction, and 
humbles himself before the mournful shrine, where 

* Precedency 's a jest ; vassal and lord. 
Grossly familiar, side by side consume.' 

There, the son whose wayward folly may have embittered the last days of a 
father will, as he sazes on his ^rave, best receive the impulse that would urge 
him, as an expiation of his crime, to perform a double duty to his surviving 
parent. There, in fact, vice looks terrible, virtue lovely ; selfishness a sin, 
patriotism a duty. The cemetery is, in short, the tenderest and most uncom- 
promising monitor of man ; for, 

* When self-esteem, or other's adulation, 
Would cunningly persuade us we were something 
Above the common level of our kind, 
The grave gainsays the smooth-complexion'd flattery, 
And with blunt truth acquaints us what we are.' 

A garden cemetery is the sworn foe to preternatural fear and superstition. 
The ancients, from their minds being never polluted with the idea of a charnel- 
house, nor their feelings roused by the revolting emblems of mortality, con- 
templated death without terror, and visited its ploomy shrine without fear. 
With them death was tranquillity, and the only images that were associated 
with it, were those of peaceful repose and tender sorrow. The names of their 
burial-places indicate no association with terror, and call forth no feeling of 
fear. The Ccemeterion of the Greek suggests only the idea of a bed of slumber ; 
the BeiJuum of the Jew speaks but of the mansion of the living. Amid the 
tombstones of Thermopylae, we would conceive that the Grecian heart beat no 
less boldly at midnight than at mid-day ; while we know that the timid female, 
during the slumber of Jerusalem, could fearlessly wander to the silent se- 
pulchre.* Whence then did the preternatural terrors connected with death 
arise, which so powerfully swayed the hearts of the middle and more modern 



•* * Among the works of ancient art there is not to be found a single image 
of a revolting nature connected with death. D'Israeli states that, 'to conceal 
Its deformity to the eye, as well as to elude its suggestion to the mind, seems 
to have been a universal feeling ; and it accorded^with a fundamental prin- 
ciple of ancient art, that of never offering to the eye a distortion of form in 
the violence of passion which destroyed the beauty of its representation ; such 
is shown in the Laocoon, where the mouth only opens sufficiently to indicate 
the suppressed agony of superior humanity, without expressing the loud ci} of 
vulgar suffering.' 



12 ON LAYING OUT CEMETERIES. 

ages ; those slavish terrors which, in the aces of ignorance, appeared almost to 
make the resurrection an unhoped for, rather than a hoped for, event; terrors 
altogether at antipodes to those just fears that call upon man, ere death, to 
make up his peace with Heaven ? This slavish and more than vulgar error 
was chiefly engendered through the monkish artifice of associating man's latter 
end with all that was disgusting and horrible, and of inspiring the world with 
the idea, that, to gain heaven, it was not necessary to exist rationally on earth. 
Amid the general gloom thus created by penances and pilgrimages, by mid- 
night masses and bloody flagellations, the troubled imaginations of Europe, as 
D*Israeli says, ' first beheld the grave yawn, and death, in the Gothic form 
of a gaunt anatomy, parading through the universe. The people were af^ 
frighted as they viewed every where hung before their eyes, in the twilight of 
their cathedrals and their pale cloisters, the most revoltmg emblems of death. 
Their barbarous taste perceived no absurditv in giving action to a heap of 
dry bones, which could only keep together m a state of immovability and 
repose ; nor that it was burlesquing the awful idea of the resurrection, by ex- 
hibiting the incorruptible spirit under the unnatural and ludicrous figure of 
mortality, drawn out of the corruption of the grave.' If supernatural terror 
sprang from such causes, it was from the gloomy, naked, ana deserted ceme- 
tery that superstition drew her chief influence. Thence flitted the phantoms 
which terrified the vulgar, and which even carried dread to the thrones of 
kings and emperors. Solitude peopled itself with ghosts and spectres ; 
silence disturbed itself with hollow groans ; while Nature, reversing her laws, 
allowed the dead to collect their scattered mouldering bones, and to appear, 
at the witching hour of night, wrapt in a winding-sheet. The monsters 
which man's imagination thus created, he turned from with horror ; they 
broke his rest in the silence of the winter's night ; he heard their cry in the 
howl of the winds, their threat in the roar of the tempest. If the corrupters 
of Christianity still attempt to terrify rather than to console humanity, and 
if superstition still exercises her fatal spell, does it not become the duty of 
every well wisher to his species, to pour into the tomb the light of religion 
and philosophy, and thereby to dissipate the vain phantoms which the false 
gloom of the grave has tended to call forth. The decoration of the cemetery 
IS a mean peculiarly calculated to produce these effects. Beneath the shade 
of a spreading tree, amid the fragrance of the balmy flower, surrounded on 
every hand with the noble works of art, the imagination is robbed of its 
gloomy horrors, the wildest fancy is freed from its debasing fears. Adorn 
the sepulchre, and the frightful visions which visit the midnight pillow will 
disappear ; and if a detestation for annihilation, mingled with the fondest 
affection for those who are departed, should lead men still to believe that the 
dead hold communion with the living, the delightful illusions which will 
result from this state of things will form a pleasing contrast to the vile super- 
stitions that preceded them. Let the fancied voice of a father pierce, in the 
silence of the night, the ear of the son who lives unmindful of his parent's 
early counsels ; or let the shade of a warning mother appear in the lunar ray, 
to the thoughtless and giddy eye of her who threatens to sacrifice her beauty 
and her virtue at the shrine of flattery. These fancies, the children of a 
pious sorrow, will neither debase the human mind, nor check the generous 
impulses of the human heart." (Necropolis Glasguenm, p. 62.) 

The remaining point to be noticed is, the influence which a cemetery or a 
churchyard is calculated to have in improving the iaste. That churchyards 
have had very little influence of this kind hitherto, we readily ackno\yledge ; 
but that they are calculated to have a great deal, may be argued from the 
universality of churches and buiring-grounds, and from their being visited by 
every individual perhaps more frequently than any other scene, except that 
of his daily occupation. A church and churchyard in the country, or a general 
cemetery in the neighbourhood of a town, properly designed, laid out, orna- 
mented with tombs, planted with trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants, all 
named, and the whole properly kept, might become a school of instruction in 



USES OF CEMETERIES. 13 

architecture, sculpture, landscape-gardening, arboriculture, botany, and in 
those important parts of general gardening, neatness, order, and high keeping. 
Some oi the new London cemeteries might be referred to as answering in 
some degree these various purposes, and more particularly the Abney Park 
Cemetery ; which contains a grand entrance in Egyptian architecture ; a 
handsome Gothic chapel ; a number, daily increasing, of sculptural monuments ; 
and one of the most complete arboretums in the neighbourhood of London, 
all the trees and shrubs being named,. In summer there are a number of 
beds filled with flowers of various kinds, and the whole is kept with great 
neatness and order. We do not, however, approve of various points in the 
arrangement of the trees and shrubs in this cemetery, nor of the form of the 
beds containing the flowers, though we admit that the management in these 
particulars is better than it is in most of the other cemeteries. But this sub- 
ject will be considered more in detail in division VII. 

Churchyards and cemeteries are scenes not only calculated to improve the 
morals and the taste, and by their botanical riches to cultivate the intellect, 
but they serve as historical records. This is the case with the religious 
temples and burial-grounds, in all ages and in all countries. The country, 
churchyard was formerly the country labourer's only library, and to it was 
limited his knowledge of history, chronology, and biography ; every grave 
was to him a page, and every head-stone or tomb a picture or an engraving. 
With the progress of education and refinement, this part of the uses of 
churchyards is not superseded, but only extended and improved. It is still to 
the poor man a local history and biography, though the means of jnore ex- 
tended knowledge are now amply furnished by the difflision of cheap publi- 
cations, which will at no distant time, it is to be hoped, be rendered still more 
effective by the establishment of a system of national education. *' A garden 
cemetery and monumental decoration," our eloquent author observes, '^ afford 
the most convincing tokens of a nation's progress in civilisation and in the 
arts which are its result. We have seen with what pains the most celebrated 
nations of which history speaks have adorned their places of sepulture, and 
it is from their funereal monuments that we gather much that is known of 
their civil progress and of their advancement in taste. Is not the story of 
£gypt written on its pyramids, and is not the chronology of Arabia pictured 
on its tombs ? Is it not on the funeral relics of Greece and Rome that we 
behold those elegant images of repose and tender sorrow with which they so 
happily invested the idea of death ? Is it not on the urns and sarcophagi of 
Etruria that the lover of the noble art of sculpture still gazes with delight ? 
And is it not amid the catacombs, the crypts, and the calvaries of Italy, that 
the sculptor and the painter of the dark ages chiefly present the most 
splendid specimens of their chisel and their pencil ? In modern days, also, 
has it not been at the shrine of death that the highest efforts of the Michael 
An^elos, the Canovas, the Thorwaldsens, and the Chantreys, have been 
elicited and exhibited ? The tomb has, in &ct, been the great chronicler of 
taste throughout the world. In the East, from the hoary pyramid to the 
modem Arab's grave ; in Europe, from the rude tomb of the druid to the 
marble mausoleum of the monarch ; in America, from the grove which the 
Indian chief planted round the sepulchre of his son, to the monument which 
announces to the lovers of freedom the last resting-place of Washington." 
(^Necropolis Glasguensis, p. 63.) 

Such are the various important uses of the cemetery and the churchyard, 
which it was necessary to take into consideration, before devising either a 
design for laying out a cemetery, or a system of rules and regulations for its 
working and management. 



14 ON LATINO OUT C£M£T£BI£S. 



II. The Laying out, Building, and Planting of Cbmetbribs. 

Having shown the uses of cemeteries, we shall next consider the mode in 
which the ground should be laid out or arranged, with reference to these uses. 
The situation of cemeteries, as they are at present used, that is, interring 
several bodies in one grave, and placing coffins in vaults, ought always to be 
at a distance from human dwellings ; but if only one coffin were to be placed 
in each grave, and that grave never again opened, but the cemetery when 
filled used as a public garden, its situation might be regulated solely by con- 
venience ; and, in general, the nearer the town, the more desirable it would 
be, both as a burial-ground and a promenade. Cemeteries, as at present 
used, ought to be in an elevated and airy situation, open to the north, but 
with a south aspect, that the surface may be dried by the sun ; rather than 
with a north aspect, where the surface would be moist during the winter months. 
If the surface be even, it will be more convenient for interments than if it were 
irregular, whether by broken ground, rocks, or undulations. It should be as 
near the great mass of the piopulation for which it is intended, as a due regard to 
their health will permit, in order to lessen the expense of carriage, and shorten 
the time of the performance of funerals and of visits by the living to the tombs 
of their friends ; it ought to be conspicuous at a distance, because, from its 
buildings and tombs, it will generally be an ornament to the surrounding 
country, and an impressive memento of our mortality ; and the outer boundary 
ought to be regular and simple, in order that it may be short, and consequently 
less expensive than if it were circuitous. 

The soily for reasons which we have already noticed, ought to be dry to 
the depth of 20 or 30 feet, or capable of being rendered so by underground 
drains. It ought not to be generally rocky, at least where deep graves are to 
be dug. As in decomposition a considerable quantity of moisture (sanies) is 
exuded, the greatest care ought to be taken not to form a cemetery over a stra- 
tum of soil which contains the water used in the neighbourhood for drinking. 
Not to mention numerous instances in London, as noticed in the Report on the 
Health of Tounu, there is a churchyard near Kirkaldy in Fifeshire with a per- 
petual spring immediately without the boundary wall, the water of which, pass- 
ing through a stratum under the graves, is said to be contaminated ; and the 
burial-ground of St. Peter's Church, Brighton, cannot be used as such, on 
account of the proximity of the chalky stratum which contains the water 
that supplies the wells of the lower part of the town. 

Li situations where, from the flatness of the country or the nature of the soil, 
there is not an opportunity of draining to a great depth, care ought always 
to be taken to carry off as much as possible of the surface water by shallow 
underground drains placed under the roads, and under the gravel walks and 
green paths which separate the lines of graves. No drains can be made under 
those parts of the surface in which graves are to be dug, for obvious reasons. 
Many details of this kind, which need not be entered into, will readily occur 
to the practical man. 

The prejudices of the living, in every country, are in favour of a gravelly, 
sandy, or chalky soil ; and in such soils draining is not required. In strong 
clayey soil, like that of most of the London cemeteries, decomposition does 
not take place for a very long period, the fleshy part of the bodies being 
changed into adipocere. 

The extent of a cemetery must, of course, depend on the population 
for which it is intended ; the probable increase or decrease of that popu- 
lation; and whether one, or more than one, interment is to be made in 
the same grave. The data on which to form the necessary calculations are, 
that the average outside dimensions of a grave are 1ft. by 3 ft. 6 in. ; that 
the average dimensions of a grave, where a number of them are supposed to 
have grave-stones, are 8 ft. by 4 ft. ; and that the average deaths in a healthy 




LAYING OUT, BUILDING, AND PLANTING. 15 

population in the country are 2 per cent, and in crowded towns and cities 
3 per cent, per annum. Thus, 20 graves will be required per annum for 
a rural population of 1000, and 200 per annum for a population of 10,000. 
An acre will give 1361 graves, which will aiibrd a supply for nearly seven 
years ; and three acres will serve for twenty-one years. At this latter period 
the town will probably have increased on the side next the cemetery, when 
the additional ground should be taken at a greater distance, and the old 
ground, when fully occupied, may be sprinkled over with trees, to be 
eventually used as a place of recreation for the living. The calculation, how- 
ever, will be considerably different , if we suppose that all the graves are to be 
without head-stones, and consequently no longer than is necessary to admit 
the coffins. For this purpose, the average width of the grave at one end 
may be 2 ft., and at the other 20 in., and me length 6 ft. Taking the greater 
width, this will give 12 square feet to each grave, which will give 3630 graves 
to an acre. These graves in the London cemeteries are dug 15 ft. in depth, 
and ten coffins of poor persons are deposited in them. The common charge 
is 25s, for each coffin, or at the rate of the enormous sum of 45,375/. per acre. 
In some cemeteries as many as fifteen coffins are deposited in one grave, 
the depth in that case being 20 or 25 feet. We could name a cemetery in 
which forty-five coffins, we are assured, have been deposited in one grave. 

The situation, soil, and extent being fixed on, the next consideration is 
the boundary fence, which ought to be such as to insure security from theftt, 
and favour solemnity by excluding the bustle of every-day life, while a view 
of distant scenery is admitted to produce a certain degree of cheerfulness, 
and dissipate absolute gloom. In an open part of the country, where there 
are few buildings or public roads, an iron railing may be employed as a 
ring-fence; but, in a populous neighbourhood, a wall 10 or 12 feet high, 
strengthened by buttresses carried up above the coping, so as to give 
the wall an arcnitectural character, may be preferable. The buttresses may 
be of two kinds : ordinary ones, merely for strengthening the wall, or form- 
ing piers to panels of open iron railing ; and, in the case of cemeteries 
not laid out in beds or panels, higher and more massive piers rising con- 
spicuously above the others, at regular distances, to receive stones having cut 
in them the numbers and letters used as indexes to lines for ascertaining 
the situations of graves, in the manner which will be hereafter described. 
The numbers and letters alluded to are at present in most cemeteries painted 
on the brickwork, which has a mean temporary appearance ; or they are put on 
stones or labels of cast iron inserted in the soil, and rising only an inch or 
two above it, which are liable to be disturbed by the moving of ground. 
Though we entirely disapprove of this mode of laying out a cemetery, yet, as 
it is generally practised, we have thought it right to keep it in view. Where 
economy is an object, a hedge and sunk wall may be used as a boundary, and 
the best plant for the hedge is the common holly. There ought to be one 
main entrance ; and, if the situation admits of it, a second entrance, for the 
admission of workmen, carts, &c., necessary for carrying on the executive part 
of the cemetery. 

In lai/ing out the inteiHor, the system of roads and walks, the drainage, the situa- 
tion of the chapel or chapels, and the arrangement of the graves, and of the 
marks which in large cemeteries, as at present laid out, are necessary at the 
angles of the squares, require to be taken sunultaneously, and also separately, into 
consideration. There ought to be at least one main road, so as to allow of a 
hearse having ready access to every part of the grounds ; and from this road 
there ought to be gravel walks into the interior of the compartments formed 
by the roads, walks, and the boundary wall ; and, from these gravel paths» 
ramifications of narrow grass paths, so as to admit of examining the graves in 
every part of the grounds, without walking over any of them, and thus insure 
respect for the dead. We have already observed that all the drains that re- 
quire to be made must be under these roads, walks, and paths, so as not to 
interfere with the graves; and the ranges of situations for graves must be 



16 



ON LAYING OUT 0£M£T£RI£S. 



determined before the roads, walks, and green alleys are fixed oil, otherwise 
there might be a waste of ground. To be convinced of the bad efl^cts of the 
peglect of surface drainage in a cemetery, it is only necessary to walk on the 
grass of that at Kensal Green during winter or spring. 

The first point to be attended to, accordmg to the present systeoiy 
unless the cemetery should be a small one of only an acre or two> is, 
to devise a system for throiving the interior into imaginmy squares or^parial-' 
lelograms, which shall be indicated by numbers and letters on the boundary 
fence, and by marks inserted in the ground at their points of intersec- 
tion. In cemeteries of moderate dimensions, more particularly if the 
form be rectangular, the marks at the intersections of the squares may be 
dispensed with ; these intersections being readily ascertained when it is 
desired to find out the precise situation of any grave, by stretching lines 
across the cemetery from the letters and figures on the boundary fence. 
For example, suppose Jig, 1. to represent a cemetery of five.acres, with the 




: fig. 1. Mode of Laying out a Cemetery in imaginary Squares. 

letters A, B, C, &c., marked at regular distances on the end walls, and figures 
1, 2, 3, &c., at the same distances on the side walls ; then, by stretching one 
line from B to B, and another from 2 to 2, the intersections of the strings 
will give the point B2, C2, &c. : but supposing the surface of the cemetery 
to be very hilly, or that it is thickly studded with tombs or trees, then, as the 
lines could not be readily stretched so as to give the points B2, C2, &c., 
with perfect accuracy, a stone or mark of cast iron is inserted when the ceme- 
tery is first laid out, in each of the intersecting points, with the letter and 
figure on it, as shown in the diagram^g. 1. at B 2, € 2, D 3, &c. At every oiher 



mttmmir''^ ^mmir^^'m^^' 



« I ■ I.II ^t"^W>^- 



"'W«B^*HIFW^»»«^w»«*i»^^*iP»»- 



• ^ » » »ii mw 



.. LAYWre OUT, BUILDING, AND PLANTING. 



17 



AJ. 


Bl 


Al. 

1 


B.2. 



point of incersectiooi throughout the cemetery, there is a sunk stone or iron in< 
serted, with the letter which stands at the ends of the long lines, and the figure 
which stands at the ends of the cross lines, as shown ) 

on a large scale in ^.2. Thus in the diagram Jig, 
1^ we should have the squares, Al, Bl, Cl, Dl, 
&c. ; and ^ 2, 6 2, C 2, &c. The use of these squares 
a to eaame the sexton to ascertain and point out, at 
any fBture time during the existence of the ceme- 
tery, the precise spot where any interment has taken 
place. For example, re(]uired to see the grave of T. 
\V. On turning to the index of the register book of 
Dames, T, W. is found to have been interred in the * 

square B4. Now, on turning to the map book of '^L.%^'3» ILSTS^ 
the cemetery, m which every iniagmary square into Angle* qfthe Squares. 
which the cemetery is parcelled out is laid down on a large scale, the position 
and dimensions of the grave will be found delineated according to the scale ; 
and then, by taking the dimensions from two of the sides of the square and 
applying them to the ground, the exact position of the grave is found, even 
though the grave mound should be obliterated. Now it must be evident 
that it would be exceedingly inconvenient to have the stone, marks fall 
into positions where buildings were to be erected, or roads or walks to 
be laid out ; and hence the propriety, as we have said above, of deter- 
mining the position of the intersections of the squares, before any other 
part of the laying out is proceeded with. This is the more necessary in cases 
where the intersecting points are to be marked by trees of particular kinds, or 
by an obelisk, or other monumental stone. By using an obelisk or other 
pillar with four sides, pointing diagonally to the four squares, as at B 2 and 
O 2 in the diagram^. 1., these stones would not only serve to indicate 
the intersections of the sq^uares, but to record the names of those buried in 
each square, if the parties interested thought fit to incur the expense. It is 
not necessary that all the squares or parallelograms should be of the same 
size ; on the contrary, their dimensions may be varied, so as to suit the 
ground, the boundary, and all the different circumstances connected with the 
general arrangement. In some cases the intersections of the squares might 
be indicated by trees, as shown at B 4, D 3, &c. 

It must be confessed, however, that this system of laying out a cemetery 
into imaginary squares is a very unsatisfactory one, for the following reasons : 
— 1. It neither admits of a permanent system of surface drainage!, nor of 
grass paths among the graves. 2. From there being no obvious principle of 
order or arrangement in conformity with which the graves are placed, the 
general aspect of tlie interior of the cemetery is confused and unsatisfactory ; 
the graves and tomb-stones seeming to be put down at random as in common 
churchyards. 3. A very slight error in mapping the graves may render it 
difficult, if not impossible, to identify a particular grave, either to point it out 
to the relations of the deceased ; or, when the square is nearly full, for the 
purpose of avoiding an old grave in digging a new one. Let any one who 
doubts this examine the map books in the principal London cemeteries, and 
ask to see one of the graves indicated in the plan. 4*. Unless a head-stone is 
put to the grave, or some other permanent mark, it is impossible for any 
person but the sexton to identify it ; which circumstance can by no means be 
rendered satisfactory to the relations of the deceased. 5. No provision is made 
for paths among these graves, so that, when the squares are nearly fiill, there 
wUl be no mode of getting to any one grave, but by walking over a number of 
others ; which is not only a species of desecration, but, when there are several 
of the graves having head-stones, must be exceedingly inconvenient, 

A much better system, in our opinion, is to lay out the ground in what may 
be called double beds with green paths between, in the manner to be described 
in a fbture paragraph, which has an orderly appearance, admits of a permanent 
system of surface drainage, requires no mapping, and enables the friends of 

c 



18 ON LAYING OUT CEMETERIES. 

the deceased to recognise the grave they wish to see without troubling the 
sexton or any one else. This laying out of the ground in double beds need not 
be so executed as to have a formal appearance, though it should be sufficiently 
distinct to give what, in the language of art, is^ called the expression of pur- 
pose, and thus give the lawn of a cemetery a different character from that of 
the lawn of a pleasure- ground. The double beds may be slightly raised in 
the middle, so as to slope to the grttss paths, and the surface of these paths, 
if only 3 in. below that of the beds, wUl be a sufficient distinction, when the 
whole is near the eye ; while, at a short distance, the difference between the 
beds and the paths will scarcely be perceptible. We mention these things to 
anticipate objections on account of the supposed formality of this plan. Under 
every green path there may be a tile dram, which will render it as dry as a 
gravel walk. The path will answer if only 3 ft. wide, because, in carrying a 
coffin along it shoulder high, that space is sufficient ; but 4 ft. is preferable, as 
adhaitting of carrying a coffin by handspokes. Where the hand-bier, to be 
hereafter described, is used, a 2-feet path would be wide enough. 

In making arrangements for the sUuations of graves, regard must be had to 
the wealth and taste of the persons who will probably use the cemetery, and 
the proportion of situations for sumptuous tombs and monuments adjusted 
accordingly. At the same time, we should mark no part of the ground as 
exclusivdy devoted to any class of society, of graves, or of monuments*; nor 
should there be any part in which a monument might not be erected. In 
general, we would form a broad border, say from 12 ft. to 20 ft. wide, along 
the main roads ; a border immediately within the boundary fence, of the same 
width as the height of the latter; a border from 8ft. to 12ft. wide on each 
side of the gravel walks ; and the interior of the compartments we would lay 
out in beds or zones, straight or curved, with green alleys of 3 or 4* feet between. 
These beds ought to be of such a width as to contain two rows of graves, 
with the headstones of. each row placed back to back in the middle of the bed, 
so as to face the alleys. The necessary width for this purpose is 18 ft. ; which 
will allow 7 ft. for the length of each grave ; 1 ft. at the nead of each grave, 
on which to erect a head-stone, or other monument not exceeding 1 ft. in 
thickness nor the width of the grave; and 1 ft. at the end next the walk, for a 
foot-stone or number. This head-stone or monument, it may be observed, 
should in no case be built on the soil, but on two brick piers brought up from 
the bottom of the soil to the surface of the ground, in the manner to be here- 
after described. 

The direction of the roads, walks, and green paths, is partly a matter of 
necessity and partly of design and taste. Where the surface of the ground is 
hilly, undulating, or otherwise irregular, winding roads become necessary ; but 
where the surface is tolerably even, whether a uniform slope or a flat 
approaching to a level, the choice lies between straight lines and curvilinear 

* By the cemetery bill brought into parliament in 1842, ''both in the 
consecrated and unconsecrated ground, portions are to be set apart for the 
poor, a hard-hearted and unchristian proposal, worthy only of barbarous 
times. Can it be necessary or useful, that now, for the first time, a ' distinctive 
mark ' should be made, after death, between rich and poor, by the express 
authority of an act of parliament ? When even the propriety of distinctions 
in churches is becoming the subject of controversy, surely the good sense 
and good feeling of society will never suffer an unfeeling innovation in this 
respect to be formally legalised in our churchyards. He who has had familiar 
intercourse with the poor must have observed their sensitiveness with regard 
to their treatment after death, a subject often of more painful interest than 
the good or bad in store for them while living. Before the committee, the 
Bishop of London, much to his honour, expressed the most kindly sympathy 
with tne feelings and prdudices of the poor with regard to interment : will he 
not set his face against the proposed regulation ?" (Claims of the Clergt/, p. 30.) 



LAYING OUT, BUILDING, AND PLANTING. 19 

ones. The direction of the roads and walks, and consequently the whole of 
the interior arrangement of the cemetery, are thus in a great measure con- 
trolled by the character of its surface. In general, straight roads and 
walks are greatly to be preferred in a cemetery to windmg ones, not 
only as admitting of a more economical occupation of the ground, every grave 
being a rectangle, and every rectangle being a multiple or divisor of every 
other rectangle, but as contributing far more than curved lines to grandeur 
and solemnity of effect. If all the roads cannot be made straight, there ought, 
if possible, to be one broad and straight road from the main entrance to the 
chapel. A winding road from the main entrance, with the chapel concealed 
by trees, has too much the character of an approach-road through a park to 
« coanUy residence. The roads may vary from 12 fl. to 20 ft. in width, 
according to the extent of the cemetery ; the walks should not be narrower 
than 5 or 6 feet, nor the green paths than 3 or 4 feet. 

The chapei or chapels ought to be placed in a central and conspicuous situ- 
ation, so as, if possible, to be seen from all the prominent points of view 
along the roads and walks. The chapels, if there are more than one, ought 
either to be grouped together in one conspicuous situation, so as to form one 
pile of building ; or placed so &r apart, or in situations so different, that they 
either cannot both be seen from the same point, or thatt if seen in the same 
view, the one shall appear to the eye so much smaller than the other as to 
appear as a part of the background of the picture. The bad effect, in an 
artistical point of view, of two chapels placed equally near the eye, that 
is, in the same plane of the picture, and so far apart as not to group together 
is strikingly exemplified in those of the Norwood Cemetery. At the main 
entrance there may be a lodge or lodges, in which the sexton or superintend- 
ant of the ground may reside, and in which also there ought to be an office for 
the cemetery books and plans, or duplicates of them, and for receiving orders 
for funerals, &c. One lodee will generally be found preferable to two, because, 
where lodges are of such a size as to be useful, and are widely separated by 
spacious gates, they attract attention as separate objects, and do not group 
together so as to satisfy the eye as a whole. If there are two separate lodges 
with intervening gates, the lodges ought not to be higher than the piers between 
the gates ; aad they ought to seem rather as massive terminations to the gates 
than as lodges, in short as a part of the fa9ade. A striking example of the bad 
effect of two laree lodges is afforded by the Nunhead Cemetery. The Abney 
Park Cemetery shows a judicious combination of two lodges with gates between ; 
there is a very good single lodge at the west entrance to the Tower Hamlets 
Cemetery ; and theKensal Green and West London Cemeteries afford examples 
of the lodge and gateway combined in one edifice, the gateway forming an arch 
through it. Where it is considered absolutdy necessary to have two lodges, 
either to a cemetery or to the park of a country residence, they ought to 
be combined with the piers of the gates, as at the Abney Park Cemetery ; 
formed into one pile oi building with the gateway, as at the West London 
Cemetery ; or one lodge ought to be much larger and higher than the other, 
in order to form a central mass or axis of symmetry, or, in Hogarth's language, 
to form the apex of the triangle. 

A yard and sheds for the cemetery tools, implements, and other cemetery 
furniture, including a carpenter's shop, may also be conveniently placed near 
the lodge ; but where the cemetery is large there ought to be two or three 
sheds for planks, barrows, &c., in different parts of the ground. In most 
cases a reserve ground for spare earth, produced from time to time as brick 
graves or vaults are formed, for rubbish of various kinds, and for nursing 
plants to be placed over the graves when wanted for that purpose, may be 
requisite. On a large scale, a mason's yard with sheds is essential ; unless, 
which is much the better mode, there should be an establishment of this kmd 
in the immediate neighbourhood, by which all the brick and stone work would 
be done by contract. 

c 2 



20 ON LAYING OUT CEMETERIES. 

On the introduction of trea and thrubt into cemeteries very much of their 
ornamental effect is dependent ; but too many trees and shrubs impede the 
free circulation of the air and the drying effect of the sun, and therefore they 
ought to be introduced in moderation. They ought not, as we think, to be 
introduced in masses in the interior of the cemetery, nor in strips or belts 
round its margin, unless under very particular circumstances. Ever^^ , mode 
of introducing trees and shrubs which is identical with that practised in 
planting parks and pleasure-grounds is to be avoided, as tending to confound 
the. character and expression of scenes which are, or ought to be, essentially 
distinct. Independently of the injury done by masses and belts in impeding the 
free circulation of the air, they prevent the ground on which they stand from 
being occupied by graves ; and though there may be no . immediate occasion 
for so occupying that ground, yet an arrangement which seems to be at 
variance with, or at least to have no reference to, the purpose for which the 
cemetery was formed is unsatisfactory. There is evidently not the same 
objection to single trees or single shrubs ; because, in whatever manner they 
may be. placed, still, between and among them, graves may always be formed. 
There is a specific objection against boundary belts, which is, that they 
occupy a space that might be advantageously laid out as a broad border for 
tombs of a superior description, with a gravel walk in front accompanied by 
another border on the opposite side. For the same reasons that we would 
not introduce trees and shrubs in masses, we would not, in the case of ceme- 
teries on low or level ground, plant trees which produce bulky heads ; but 
confine ourselves chiefly to kinds having narrow conical shapes, like the 
cypress, the form of which not only produces little shelter or shade, but has 
been associated with places of burial from time immemorial. Almost all the 
kinds should be evergreen and of dark foliage ; because the variety produced 
by deciduous and flowering trees is not favourable to the expression either of 
solemnity or grandeur. Evergreen needle-leaved trees, such as the pines, 
firs, junipers, yews, &c., we should prefer ; because, when their foliage drops, 
it produces much less litter than that of broad-leaved trees, such as. the 
holly, common laurel, evergreen oak, &c. On very hilly cemeteries we would 
introduce round-headed trees along with conical shapes, but still chiefly 
confining ourselves to evergreens, such as the ilex, Lucombe oak, holly, the 
dark-foliaged pines, &c. 

Supposirig all the roads, walks, and green paths laid out, or their situations 
fixed on, and all the beds and borders also laid out, then we would dispose of 
the trees and shrubs in the following manner: — Along each side of most or, 
all of the main roads, whether straight or curved, we would plant a row of 
trees parallel to the road, and at regular distances, so as to form a running 
foreground to the interior of the compartments, and to whatever there might 
be of distant scenery. The kinds should be pines and firs of dark foliage. 
In roads and walks in the direction of east and west, we would either plant 
the trees farther apart, or plant narrower-growing kinds, such as the common 
cypress, the Irish yew, the Swedish juniper, the fastigiate arbor vitae, &c. 
At many of the intersections of the squares, in those cemeteries where that 
mode of division is adopted, we would plant provisionary trees, of a kind 
strikingly different from every other planted in the cemetery, in order to 
distinguish the angles of the squares at first sight, with the number stone at 
their base, to be taken up when it became practicable or desirable to sub- 
stitute obelisks, square pillars, or other monuments, for them. Along the 
centre of the beds adapted for double rows of graves we would plant trees or 
shrubs at regular distances, with the intention that, in this and in all other 
cases whatever, except along the main approach from the entrance to the 
chapel, the trees should be taken up and replanted, or removed altogether, 
when necessary, so as to suit the position of graves. 

With respect to the kinds of^ trees, we would, with very few exceptions, 
plant only those evergreens which have naturally dark foliage and narrow 



LAYING OUT, BUILDING, AND PLANTING. 21 

conical heads, or which admit of being pruned with little difficulty into such 
forms ; because such forms not only interfere less with ventilation, sun- 
shine, and the performance of funerals, but, more especially when of a 
dark colour, are naturally, from their great height in proportion to their 
breadth, more sublime than spreading forms; as well as artificially so, 
from their being classically and popular^ associated with places of sepulture. 
For the main avenue we should prefer Mnua tadrica, P. Pallasiana, or P. ni- 
gricans; if the situation were, favourable, the evergreen cypress, or the 
./unfperus excelsa, found to be a very hardy conical tree ; and, if very unfa- 
vourable, the red cedar, or the common spruce. The pines and spruce grow 
rapidly, and admit of being cut into cones as narrow as may be desirable ; 
but, to render this cutting unnecessary, the red cedar, and some of the rapid-- 
growing conical junipers, might be employed. Along most of the gravel walks, 
and along the centre of the double beds, we would plant for the most part 
only fastigiate shrubs, such as the Irish yew, Irish and Swedish juniper, Jw 
nlperus recurva, and some other junipers, and the arbor vitse, box, common 
3'ew, &c. We would not plant, as a part of the general plantation of a 
cemetery or churchyard, weeping willows, weeping ashes, weeping elms, 
or trees of that kind ; because we think that these trees, being of such 
marked and peculiar forms, are best adapted for being used only occasionally, 
for particular purposes ; and therefore we would leave individuals to select 
such trees, or trees or shrubs of any other singular shapes that they thought 
fit, and have them planted over their graves or tombs. Thus, while the 
general plantations of the cemetery maintained a uniform grandeur and so- 
lemnity of expression, the singularly shaped frees and shrubs employed by 
individuals would confer variety of character. 

A cemetery planted in the manner described will have a distinctive character, 
and one quite different from that of any of the cemeteries that we have seen, 
either in London or elsewhere. These cemeteries, according to our ideas, 
bear too great a resemblance to pleasure-grounds. That they are much 
frequented and admired by the public is no proof that they are in appropriate 
taste, but only that they are at present the best places of the kind to which 
the public have access. When our public parks and gardens are extended and 
improved as they ought to be ; when they are ornamented with fountains, statues, 
immense blocks of different descriptions of rock (named), and with models of 
celebrated buildings, as covered seats and places of temporary repose or 
shelter; when they abound in singing and other birds and aquatic fowls, and 
contain every variety of tree and shrub that will thrive, and many kinds of 
herbaceous plants ; and when they are perambulated, during a certain number 
of hours every summer's day, by a band of music, as in some of the public 
gardens in Germany ; then will the necessity, as well as the propriety, of having 
a distinctive character for cemeteries be understood and appreciated. 

The planting of powers in cemeteries is very general, not only in the mar- 
gin of masses and belts, and in beds as in pleasure-grounds, but on graves. 
For our own particular taste, we would have no flowers at all, nor any por- 
tion of ground within a cemetery that had the appearance of being dug or 
otherwise moved for the purpose of cultivation. A state of quiet and repose 
is an important ingredient in the passive sublime ; and moving the soil for the 
purpose of culture, even over a grave, is destructive of repose. 

Nevertheless, as the custom of planting flowers on graves is common- 
throughout Europe, and of planting them in beds is frequent in the cemeteries 
about London, arrangements for this purpose must be provided accordingly. 
We would never plant flowers or flowering shrubs in the margins of masses 
or belts, or in beds or patches that might be mistaken for those of a lawn or 
a flower-garden ; but, to give them a distinctive character, we would plant them 
in beds of the shape of graves or coffins, raised above or sunk beneath the 
general surface, and only in situations and on spots where at some future 
time a grave would be dug. For example, two graves lu-e seldom dug close 

c 3 



22 ON LATING OUT CEHETE 

together, but an intervening piece of firm grounc 
sufficient for forming a grave at a future time ; tl 
possible, at all times, firm ground for the sides of a f 
excavated. Now, on these intervening spots aioi 
of flowers, or of roses, or of other flowering shrubi 
or trees are planted on occupied graves, it is done 
to their own taste. Tlie most highly oniamented ci 
hood of London, as far as respects plants, is that 
as already menlToned. there is a complete arboretui 
kinds of rhododendrons, azaleas, and roses in Mesi 
and in which also dahlias, geraniums, fuchsias, vei 
planted out in patches in the summer season. 

mw iW 



Fig, 3. represents a walk with a double border o 
parts of the border representing beds of shrubs or 
flowers alternately, and the open spaces between bd 







When these spaces are filled up, thoai 
be occupied. It is evident that this mode might be 
in the form of the beds, and in the mode of plantii^ tl 

ilMMMii, 

I WW m Mm wnt if 



Fig. «. Biiiiif floae 



LAYING OUT, BUILDING, AND PLANTING. 



23 




Fig. 7. Double Borden, with Bals qf 
Flower* or Shrubs eUiematmg with 
Spaces for Graves. 



Fig. 8. Beds/or Shrubs, and Circles for 

Flowers. 



A mode of planting and managing which we should like to see tried with all 
or any of the systems of beds,/g*. 3. to 6., would be to plant them with com- 
mon yew, or with juniper, box, Pinus pumllio, or spruce fir, and keep the 
plants cut or clipped in such a manner as to form low, compact, architectural- 
looking masses 2 or 3 ft. high. 



€> © © 




f^ © © © © 




Fig. 9. Beds for Flowers and Single Shrubs 
or low Trees, such as Thorns. 



Fig. 10. Beds for Flowers and fastigiate Trees* 
such as the Irish Yew, aUemating with Graves- 



The buildings required in cemeteries may next occupy our attention. A 
chapel or chapels are generally required, because some persons prefer the 
bunal service read under cover, or this may be rendered necessary by 
the state of the weather. The size of a chapel, therefore, should be such as 
to afford seats for the ordinary number of attendants at a funeral, with an 
open area in the centre, of sufficient diameter to hold two or more coffins on 
biers ; and, as it is a general custom in Christendom to carry a corpse with 
the feet before, the body being brought in and set down on the bier in that 
position is, after the service is over, taken up bv men and turned com- 
pletely round, so as the feet may be in advance berore it is taken out of the 
chapel. In addition, therefore, to the space necessary for holding the bier and 
the coffin, there must be room for turning the latter completely round, either 
while on the bier, which has long handles for that purpose, or on men's 
shoulders. A circle 10 or 12 feet in diameter, or a square that would con- 
tain such a circle, will afford ample space for these purposes, and the remainder 
of the chapel may be occupied with the pulpit, desk, seats, &c. 

In the chapels of some of the new London cemeteries, instead of biers for 
the coffins, there is a table, the top of which has one or two spaces, each 
of the width of a coffin, filled in with rollers, and the entire top of the table 
turns on a pivot. The coffin or coffins, when brought in, are put on the 
table, by sliding them on the rollers; and, after the service has been performed, 
the table is turned round on its pivot, when the coffins being thus placed in 
die right position for going out are carried away by the bearers. The rollers 

c 4 



24 ON LAYING OUT CEMETERIES. 

facilitate the sliding on and drawing off of the coffins, and the turning of the 
table, by means of the pivot, saves the most difficult and awkward portion of 
the labour performed by the bearers, who, when not much accustomed to it, 
are apt to stumble, and create alarm in the mourners lest the coffin should 
fall. When a bier-table of this kind is used, the area left for it need not 
exceed 8 ft. in diameter, which will thus save 4ft. in the entire length, and 
the same in the breadth, of the chapel. 

A very convenient apparatus oi this kind has been put up at the Kensal 
. Green Cemeterv. In the body of the chapel is a bier, in the form of an 
altar, about 8 ft. long, 4 ft. broad, and 4 ft. high, hung round with black 
velvet. The upper surface of this altar-like structure consists of a top for 
holding one or two coffins ; and, to facilitate the putting on and taking off of 
these, this plate or top is ftimisbed with rollers. After the desk service has 
been read, the top containing the coffin or coffins can be turned slowly 
round by machinery, operated on by a small movable winch handle on one 
side, which is done after the service has been read, when the interment is to 
take place in the open ground, or in the catacombs at a distance from the 
chapel ; but, when the coffin is to be removed to the vaults under the chapel, 
there is machinery below, worked by a man there on a signal being given 
by ringing a small bell, by which the entire bier, and the coffin or coffins 
which may be on it, are slowly lowered into a central area in the vault be- 
neath. The mourners having descended by a staircase much too small for a 
chapel so magnificent in other resi>ects, the coffins are carried from this area 
to the vaults, which radiate from it in four directions, and occupy nearly an 
acre of ground. The machinery by which the bier is lowered consists of 
two vertical male screws, worked by two female screws or nuts, which are 
moved by means of two beveled wheels set in motion by a man turning a 
windlass handle. This machine, while it lowers the bier through the floor, 
moves at the same time two horizontal shutters, which gradually close the 
opening in the floor as the coffin descends from the view of the spectators in 
the chapel i while, by the time they have arrived in the area below, the bier is 
already at tlie bottom, with the coffin on it, ready to be removed to the vault. 
The great advantage of using a screw movement for the descent of the bier is, 
that the motion can never be otherwise than slow and solemn, and that it 
cannot run down in case of the handle being set at liberty. This admirable 
contrivance was invented and executed by Mr. Smith, Engineer, Princes 
Street, Leicester Square, the patentee of an excellent window shutter, and 
of several other inventions noticed in our Encifclop, of Cott, Architecture^ The 
cost was about 400/. In the Norwood Cemetery the same obje<Jt is effected 
by means of Bramah's hydraulic press, which raises and lowers the bier with 
the slightest possible noise, and with a degree of steadiness which cannot be 
equalled by any other machine. The cost is about 200/. There is one draw- 
back, however, to this machine, which is, that during very severe frosts the 
water is liable to freeze ; but this may be guarded against by shutting all the 
outside doors of the vaults, and by the use of stoves. In ordinary winters, 
however, the latter are unnecessary. This machine was put up by Messrs. 
Bramah, Prestage, and Ball, 124. Piccadilly. 

The number of sittings need seldom exceed fifty, at least in the neighbour- 
hood of London, as it rarely happens that more than a fourth of that number 
attend a funeral. Whatever be the architectural style of the chapel, it. ought 
to contain a bell, the ringing of which, when the hearse is approaching from 
the entrance gate to the chapel, may be considered as a part of the burial 
service. The bell ought to be placed in a bell turret, rising from one of the 
gables, so as to become a conspicuous feature, and distinguish the chapel 
from a cottage or barn, in the same manner as the chimney tops of a dwelling- 
house are characteristic of a human habitation. 

The entrance lodge to a cemetery ought to comprise a room to serve as an 
office to contain the cemetery books, or, at least, the order book and register. 



^■^ 



'W^'J 



'^Hmw^^W^^^^iW^ 



^^»^w^^r«*f^ 



^^^k'V««^^>Ta 



LAYING OUT, BUILDING, AND PLANTING. 



25 



and the map book, where, ffom the system of squares being employed, such 
a book is rendered necessary. In small cemeteries, and in common church- 
yards, where the sexton is also the clerk and registrar, all the books and 
other documents will be kept in a strong closet in this room ; but, in large 
cemeteries managed by a court of directors, the books are kept by a clerk in 
the cemetery office in the town or district to which it belongs, and only an 
order book, and the renter and map book, or duplicates of them, are kept 
in tbeiof^ Fig, 11. is a plan of the lodge and yard at the main entrance of 




Fig. 11. Grouttd Plan of the Entrance Lodge to the Tower Hamlets Cemetery, 

the City of London and Tower Hamlets Cemetery ; in which a is the porch ; 
b, yestibule ; c, committee room ; dy strong closet ; e, gate-keeper's room ; 
fy bed-room ; g, passage ; hy coals ; 1 1, water-closets ; Ar, tool-house ; /, house 
for planks, tools, carpenter's shop, &c. ; m, coach-house ; n, coal-shed ; and 
o, yard. The architects of this lodge and cemetery are Messrs. Wyatt and 
Brandon. The most appropriate cemetery lodge that we know is the one at 
Newcastle by Mr. Dobson, a figure of which will be hereafter given. Mr. 
Dobson's lodge can never be mistaken either for an entrance to a public park 
or to a country residence. 

The other buildings or mural structures belonging to cemeteries are, vaults, 
catacombs, brick graves, tombs or other monuments, head-stones, foot-stones, 
cenotaphs, walls, and drains. 

Vaults are commonly made under churches or chapels, but in the large ceme- 
teries they are also made in the open ground, in deep excavations descended to 
by stairs, anuij^n^ed on each side of a passage or passages, which are lighted 
through iron gratings on the surface. One of the best examples, on a small 



LAYING OUT, BUILDING, AND PLANTING. 27 

grave, containing a coffin at bottom ; /, the basement wall to the head-stone ; 
and m, the head-stone. 

A brick grave is a substitute for a vault, and differs only from an ordinary 
grave in having the sides and ends of brickwork or masonrv, and in being 
covered with a large flat stone, technically, a ledger-stone. These graves are 
generally purchased and built by heads of families. Sometimes they are of the 
width of two coffins, but generally of one ; and they vary in depth from 10 ft. 
to 20 ft. or upwards. When an interment takes place the stone is loosened 
by levers, and removed by means of rollers ; and, the coffin being let down as 
in common ^aves, the ledger-stone is replaced and cemented. The side 
walls are bmlt concave next the grave, in order that they may act as arches 
against the exterior soil ; and, in some cases, they are furnished with ledges 
which project 2 or 3 inches from each side, for retaining a flag-stone or slate 
between each coffin. When this flag-stone is securely cemented, the coffin 
below may be considered as hermetically sealed, though it is not very likely 
that this will be done so completely as to prevent the ascent of the mephitic 
gas. In other brick graves no ledges are projected, but one coffin is pre- 
vented from resting on another by inserting two bars of iron in the side 
walls, so as to support each coffin. When the coffins reach within 3 or 
4 feet of the surface, the ledger is put on for the last time ; and a putrid mass, of 
perhaps 15 fb. in depth, is left to generate poisonous air, which will escape, 
probably for years, tnrough such crevices as may be left, or as may occur from 
the action of weather or other causes, between the ledger and the side walls 
on which it rests. The proper mode would be to fill in the uppermost 6 or 
8 feet of the grave with earth. The names of the interred are inscribed on 
the ledger, in the order of their interment ; or a monument of some kind 
is erected on it, of such dimensions, and in such a position, that it can be 
removed in one piece with the ledger, without being loosened or otherwise 
disturbed. In the Highgate Cemetery there are ledger-stones weighing 
with their monuments eight or ten tons, which are removed all in one piece 
every time an interment takes 

Elace. The more common mode, 
owever, is to place a head- 
stone as a monument, as shown ^ j * __ 

in the section, ^g. 13. In this ^ Z/. ■ ^ 

section, a is the side wall of the 
grave, here shown with openings 
to permit the lateral diflusion of 
moisture and mephitic vapour ; 
b is the ledger or covering 
stone; and c, the bead-stone. 
At one end is a common grave 
(d) with its foot-stone (e) ; 

and one of the two double green ^ig. 13. Section CD in the Plan fig. 17., through a 

alleys, which form boundaries to Brick Grave and a common Grave. 

the raised panel of graves, is shown at/. 

Brick graves are also used as earth graves, and filled to the surface with 
soil every time after an interment has taken place* The openings for re- 
interments should, as we have already mentioned (p. 4.X never be sunk 
to a greater depth than within 6 ft. of the last deposited coffin ; in which 
case no very great disturbance or danger from putrescence would take 
place, more especially in clayey or loamy soil, and when it is made a rule 
to ram the soil hard with a cast-iron rammer, to the height of at least 6 ft. 
above every coffin as it is deposited.* When the last-deposited coffin is 

* Family graves, in some of the new cemeteries, are made fi'om 12 ft. to 
30 ft. in depth. We lately saw one in the Norwood Cemetery, which had 
been originally 20 ft. deep, and had one coffin deposited in it, after which it 




28 



ON LATINO OUT CEMETEBIEd. 



within 6 ft. of the surface, the grave should be finally closed. Graves of this 
kind are not necessarily covered with a ledger-stone; they may be finished with 
a raised mound of earth, like a common earth grave, or the side and end walls 
may be finished with kerb-stones a foot above the surface, and the interior 
left level or planted with flowers. After the last interment, a cypress or 
other tree, or a strong-growing herbaceous plant, might be planted in the centre. 
The walls of graves of this sort should be built with numerous openings, as 
in fg. 13., to permit the lateral diffusion of the products of decomposition, 
and of the natural moisture of the soil. 

Earth graves are of two kinds : private graves, in which only one body is 
deposited, with or without a monument ; and common graves, in which several 
bodies are deposited, of poor persons, or paupers, for whom no monument is 
ever put up, except a mound covered with turf, but which ought always to 
be marked with a stone number for reference, and to prevent all risk of their 
being opened again at any future period. 

Sepidchral monuments, whether mausoleums (which is a term only applied to 
the most sumptuous description of tombs), square tombs, ledger -stones with 
inscriptions, sarcophagi, pedestals, vases, urns, columns, obelisks, pillars, crosses, 
&c., to have the appearance of security and permanence, ought to exhibit two 
features ; they ought to be perfectly erect or perpendicular, and they ought to 
rise from an architectural base. These features it is easy to exhibit when the 
monument is newly put up, but to continue them, even for a year, it is neces- 
sary to have a foundation of masonry under ground, as well as a basement 
above it; and, in order that this foundation may be permanently secure, it must 
be as deep as the adjoining grave or graves. In the case of vaults and brick 
graves, tnis secure foundation is furnished by the 
structure itself; but in the case of common earth 
graves a foundation requires to be built up, and the 
problem is how to effect this in a manner at once se- 
cure and economical. In most cemeteries and church- 
yards, and even in Pere la Chabe and Kensal 
Green, the greater part of the monuments have no 
other foundation than the moved soil, and only 
comparatively few are placed on the firm soil. The 
consequence of this is, that, in two or three years after 
the monuments are put up, they are found leaning to 
one side ; or, if they are composed of several pieces, ^ 
they are seen with the joints rent, and conveying JT 
ideas the very reverse of permanence. Our remedy IlT^ 
for the evil is, two brick or stone piers at the head 
of each grave, carried up from the bottom, and 
from 9 in. to 2 fb. square, according to the depth. The 
two piers should be brought up at the same time, 
and tied together by building in pieces of iron hoop ; 
and, when within a short distance of the 





sur- 






'■f^ 



face, they should be joined by a semicircular arch, ^^^'^^'k^^*^ ^^'J^'*^ 



a 9-ineh underground Pier. 



was filled in to the surface with soil. It was, at the time we saw it, being opened 
to the depth of between 18 ft. and 19 ft., and the smell proceeding from -the 
earth brought up was to us intolerable. This, and numerous other cases 
which we have witnessed, or which have come to our knowledge altogether 
independently of the Parliamentary Report on the Health of Towns, for 1842, 
or Mr. Walker's Gatherings from Gravei/ards, have strongly impressed us with 
the necessity of a law to limit the proximity of one coffin to another in graves 
in which more than one interment is made , unless, as before observed, the 
coffins are put in on the same day. (See p. 4. and p. 43.) 



LAYING OCT, BUILDING, AND PLANTING. 29 

or carried up to the surface and connected by a lintel, which may be the 
visible base of the heuil-stone. Where a pedestal ornaineDt of an^ kind oot 
more than 18 in. on the bide was to be put up, one pillar 18 in. square 
might suffice ; or, when there was no danger of the ground being moved, 
even a 9-inch pier as in^. 14., would keep the pedestal From sinking. Where 
two graves were built end to end or side bj Bide, three pillars would serve 
for hoth graves : and where four graves were to be made side by side 
and end to end, three pillars would suffice ; or, in effect, two pillars, as 
shown in^. 15.. the two half-pillars at a and b not occupied being charged 
by the builder to the ceme- 
tery, which would have a nglit 
to sell them to those who 
made adjoining mterments « 

These pillars may be built in 

a few hours, by having before- Y\g >b DeuNrFamt: 
haod portions of them pre- 
pared with brick and cement 
in the manner familiar to every builder 
ground propd of these materials might be formed; n 
tion to cast-iron underground props. Wliere perm" 
main object, we would not use cast-iron monunients ; 
to prevent the rust from appearing through 
the punt, and scaling off so as to destroy, 
first the inscription, and neit the body of 
the monument. In some of the London 
cemeteries temjiorary labels of wood, hav- 
ing on them the number of the grave or of 
the interment, and sometimes the name of 
the party interred, are used ; and where 
economy is an object, and durability to the 
extent of a generation considered sufficient, 
we do not see any objection to the use of 
cast-iron tallies, such as^g. 16. ; their lower 
extremities being so fixed to a piece of wood 
as to prevent them from being pulled out, 
while a circular disk, resting on two plain 
tiles or bricks, will prevent them Trora 
sinking. The cost of these monumental 
tablets at the foundery will be under 1/. 

each ; and the painting, and lettering, and w ,*^^ ^ it 

fixing could scarcely, in any case, exceed ng. le, uonumnuai Taii^ nr 

5l. each. Cau iron. 

It is in order to supply room for head monuments that we have reserved a 
space of 2 ft. ill width between each double row of graves, as shown in the 
ground plan /g. 17. In this figure a i is the space between the two lines 
of graves, commencing and ending with a number stone ; c c are common 
graves with coffins, with piers for head-stones at d d, and spaces for foot- 
atones a foot in width at f r;; /is a bnck grave with two coffins inserted, the 
head-stone to be placed between gg and ij,- A A are spaces left for common 
graves, hrick graves, or, by occupying four divisions, for vaults ; i, a vault for 
two coffins in width, occupying four divisions ; l, a vault for one coffin in width, 
occupying one division ; 1 1, the green alleys between the double rows of 
grave beds or panels. 

When it is in contemplation to have a double line of brick groves, or to fill 
up a cemetery regularly, without allowing a choice to the purchasers, as in 
the cemeteries oT the Jews, then a foundation wall 8 ft. in width might be 



30 OH LAXIKQ OUT CEMETERIES. 



Fig. H 



PUm i>f a Dcmtli Btd p" <*< Arramfirmcia qf 



« ^ Grawi, vfUfr»* iJbf I 



Cenofapki, ta every one knowa, are monumenta put up to the memory of 
persons who are interred Bomewhere else. The; commonly consist of tablets 
with inscriptions, medallionB, busts, basso-relievos, or other sculptural objects, 
and are very fit ornaments Tor affixing to walla under cover, or protected by 
architectural projections, such as those furnished by a chapel, a cemetery 
veranda, a boundary wall, or a structure erected on purpose, as is not unfre- 
quent in the French and German cemeteries. 

WaUt, when used as the boundary of a cemetery, and built of brick, may be 
carried up holloir, which will be a considerable saving of material, and render 
all piers unnecessary, unless for effect, or, in the case of cemeteries Imd out 
in imaginary squares, the piers which are to contain the atones having the let- 
ters and numbers. 

The nkriu cotiveying-draBit of a cemetery, if built of brick, should be barrel- 
shaped, in the usual manner ; but, if of stone, the bottom should be laid with 
flag-stone, and the same description of stone should be used for the covering. 
aUinn coUecfmg-draim may Ite formed by semi-cylindrical tiles placed on flat 
tiles in the bottom, and small stones placed over them to uithin n foot or less 
of the surface of the ground. Sarjhce coUecling-draim may be SO in, deep, 
formed like the last, with tiles at the bottom, and carried up to the surface with 
small gravel, finishing with coarse sand; and, 
when these drains are in the green alleys, grass 
may be sown over them. When at the sides of 
the gravel walks or roads, they ought to com- 
municate with surface gratings at regular dis- 
tances; and immediately under each grating 
there ought to be a pit t ft. square and t h 
deep to retain the sand carried in by the water 
(fig. 18.), this sand being Uken out once a year. 
Where the roads and walks are laid with as- 
pbalte, gratings of this kind will be more ne- 
cessary than when they are made of gravel, as 

a certain proportion of the water always sinks Fin. is. crupaoi uadcr Gratmg./or 
through tie latter material, but none through ««.^^'«?^^ *«* »r««*/ -ot- 
the former. 

The fuTitilure, or tools, implements, and temporary structures, of large and 



LAYING OUT, BUILDING, AND PLANTING. 



31 



complete cemeteries, consists of picks, spades, shovels, levers, rakes, scrapers, 
brooms ; a rope and pulley, or block and tackle, to be used with a triangle ; 
planks, ladders, grave-boards, dumcrafts, grave-platforms, grave-boxes, grave- 
moulds, wheelbarrows, buckets for raising soil, a frame for supporting canvass 
or a tarpaulin over a grave while being dug during rain; and a temporary struc- 
ture, consisting of a floor of boards or wooden grating, with three sides and a 
roof of canvass, rendered waterproof by paint, for the protection of the clergy- 
man while reading the service at the grave ; with another structure, of a larger 
size, for sheltering both the clergyman and the mourners. It is only necessary 
to notice in detail the grave-boards, the earth-boxes, and the temporary 
structures, as these are required in all burying-grounds. 

The gravc'-boetrds are requured in almost every case where the grave is dug more 
than 5 or 6 feet in depth, in order to prevent the sides from breaking down ; and 
they are, perhaps, the most important implements connected with the ceme- 
tery. The ordinary custom is, to dig the grave 6 in. or a foot longer than is 
Decessary ; to introduce planks, one after another, as the grave advances in 
depth; and to keep them firmly against the sides by short pieces used as struts 
at the ends. An improved description of grave-boards has been devised by two 
superintendants of London cemeteries unknown to each other, viz. Mr. E. 
Buxton, superintendant of the Nunhead Cemetery, and Mr. Northen, super- 
intendant of the Tower Hamlets Cemetery. In both improvements the side 
grave-boards are hinged, so as to form a concave side next the erave, by 
which means, when they are placed against the sides, they resist the lateral 
pressure in the manner of an arch. According to Mr. Buxton's invention, 
one board is put in beneath another as the grave is excavated, and each 
board is kept in its place by the end struts, which are driven outwards at 
each end of the grave : but, according to the practice in the Tower 
Hamlets Cemetery, the boards and end pieces are first joined together, 
and then let down from the top, one above another, as in well-smking. 
The difficulty in both cases is to take the boards out, which must always 
be done by commencing at the bottom and proceeding upwards, the filling 
In of the earth over the coffin being carried on at the same time. Were 
the boards taken out from the top, the earth from the sides would be liable to 
fall in and bury some of the lower boards, or, in the case of graves 15 or 
20 feet deep, it might bury the grave-digger. The grave-boards used by Mr. 
Buxton, the superintendant of the Nunhead Cemetery, are represented in 
the isometrical view, fig, 19. They are in four parts : two sides, each of 




Fig. 19. T^ GravC'BoM'ds used in the Nunhead Cemetery. 

which is hinged on a beveled edge, which renders it impossible for them to 
get out of their places, and two ends which serve as struts to keep the sides 
apart. These ends are prevented from dropping out, by cutting the grave 
rather less than the intended width, and driving the ends, which act as struts, 
home with a large wooden hammer; in consequence of which they cannot be 
removed without the aid of a flat-ended lever bar. The sides are kept in 
their places by the pressure of the soil, against which they act as arches. The 



32 



ON LATING OUT CEMETERIES. 




method of ustng these boards is as foUows. The ground is opeoed about 1 ft. 
or 18 in. in depth ; then the first pair of boards and ends are fixed, their 
upper eik;e being 12 or 18 inches from the surface of the ground. Next, at in- 
tervals of their own width, or closer, if the nature of the ground renders it 
necessary, another pair of boards and ends may be fixed, and so on till the 
grave is dug to the required depth. When the coffin has been deposited, the 
lowest pair of boards and ends are first taken out ; and the remaining sides 
and ends are taken out in succession as the grave is filled. Bfr. Buxtou, to 
whom we are indebted for a small model from which our engraving was made, 
and who takes a deep interest in the Nunhead Cemetery, and in the subject 
of cemeteries generally, states that, by having the head and foot boards of 
different sizes, graves may be made of different degrees of width, as required 
for the different-sized coffins. The common length of the head board is 18 in., 
and of the foot board 16 in. ; length of the side 5 ft. 2 in., and of the shorter 
portion 2 ft. 2 in. ; making the total dimensions of the box, inside measure, 
7 ft. in length ; width at the shoulders, 2ft 4 in. : but by the use of different- 
sized head and foot struts, as before mentioned, any size required may be 
obtained. A great deal of labour in digging is saved by the use of these 
boards. It roav be added, that a set of side boards are kept about 6 ft. in 
length, by which graves 5 ft. 9 in. in the clear are produced. 

A 



B 



-, C 




Fig. 20. Plan qfthe Grave-Boards #n use m the Tower Hamlets Cemetery, 

Fig, 20. is a plan of the grave-boards invented by Mr. Northen, as they 
appear when placed together in the grave. One side is hinged at d, and the 
other retained in its angular position by strong iron plates at the upper and 
under edge at a. Both boards are fastened to the ends by iron pins, which 
drop into eves, as seen at the angles e e, and more distinctly in the sections 
Jigs, 25. anci 26. 



d 



• e 




Fig. 21. Elevation qf the Side marked, d in Jig. 20. 

F^, 21. is an elevation of the side d viewed externally, showing the hinges 
at f, and the iron hoops for preventing the boards from splitting at g g. 




Fig. 22. Elevation of the Side marked a in Jig. 20. 

Fig, 22. is an elevation of the side marked a seen externally : h k, the 
top and bottom stiff*ening plates. 



LAYING OUT, BUILDING, AND PLANTING. 



33 




Fig. 23. Elevation qfthe 
End B in fig. 20. 



Fig. 23. is an elevation of 
the end b. 

Fig, 24^ is an elevation of 
the end c, which is two inches 
shorter than the end b. 




Fig. 25, is a section on ^^«'^' f^^fj^ 1^!^ 

^, ^. 1. • ^L c '» fig' 20., takich is 2 m. 

the line BC, snowing the shorter than the End b. 

inside elevation of the side a : s t are rings for 

pulling out the side boards ; e e, pins and eyes for fastening the ends to 

the sides ; h h are the stiffening plates. 




o* 




Oi 


i 



Fig. 25. Section on the Line bc in fig. 20* , showing the Side a. 

Fig. 26. is a section on the line b c, showing the inside elevation of the side 
D ; At, an iron hasp which locks the two leaves of the side d, and prevents 
them from being pressed inwards. A latch of this kind is fixed on every 
other board on eacn side of the grave ; and thus, when the board having the 
iatch is loosened, the ends and the opposite board (fig. 22. a) readily drop 
out. The scale shown in this figure applies to it and to the preceding seven 
figures. 





O H 



4n./z ( 4 

ii..i.ii.t. it 



3 



4- 






Pig. 26. Section on the Line bc in fig. 20., showing the Elevation qf the Side i>. 

As the grave is bdng dug, one tier of boards fastened together, as shown 
in^. 20., is first let down, like the kerb of a well in well-sinking ; and as 
the work proceeds, and this frame sinks, another is placed over it, to sink in 
its turn ; and so on, introducing one fi^me of boards after another, till the 
grave is dug to the proper depth. The last 18 or 20 inches at the bottom of 
the grave are not dug out quite so wide as all above, in consequence of 
which the boards do not go just so deep as the top of the coffin after it 
has been lowered. Hiis admits of more readily taking out the boards, which 
is done by driving out the hasps h, and the pins e, beginning at the bottom 
and working upwards as the grave is filled. When the coffin is lowered, 
settled in its place, and the lowering ropes drawn out, the grave-digger de- 
scends to the bottom, and with a hammer drives out one of the hasps, which 
instantly loosens that board, allows of taking out the two ends, and conse- 
quently loosens the opposite one. In this waj' he proceeds from the bottom 
to the topt filling in the soil as he goes on. 

The manner in which the grave-boards are kept in their position at Mussel- 
burgh, near Edinburgh, differs from that employed in most places, and is in 
some, if not in all, respects superior to it. It is the invention of Mr. Robert 
Gay, a smith in Musselburgh, and the superintendant of the burying-ground 
there. It consists in the application of the instrument shown in fig, 27., 
which about Edinburgh is called a dumcraft, and about London a screw lever. 
Two of these instruments, with the iron plates, spear nails, &c., screwed to 
the planks, which cost about 6t. 6d. each, are required for every pair of boards, 
one being applied at each end. A pair of boards, with a pair of dumcrafts 
fitted up complete, cost at Musselburgh from 20^. to 22«. The iron is made of 
|-inch rod, with a male screw at one end working in a female screi^, to which 

D 






ntendai 



IB not t 
le earti 



rgh. 1 
: would 



LAYING OUT, BUILDING, AND PLANTING- 



35 




ilg. 29. Grave-B(Mt in me in the Edinburgh Bwying'Grounds, 

would also enable the erave-diggers to wheel them away, one after another, as 
fast as they were filled, and when the grave was completed, to leave it quite 
fi*ee on every side for the approach of mourners, who would in this case walk 
on the turf, instead of walking on loose earth or planks. This result is some- 
times obtained by throwing all the excavated soil into wheelbarrows, and 
removing these to a short distance, there to stand till the coffin is deposited. 
Either of these modes is much better than the common one of throwing up 
the soil on each side of the grave, and obliging the coffin-bearers to clamber 
over it. As the grave-boxes are readily taken to pieces, they can be stowed 
away, in sheds or tool-houses, in little space. 

The grave-platjbrm is a flooring of boards about 10 ft. long by 5 ft. broad, 
with an opening in the middle, of the shape and dimensions of an ordinary- 
sized coffin. It is hinged, so as to fold together lengthwise. Its use is to 
place over the grave, after the soil has been removed in boxes or barrows, for 
the double purpose of forming a guide to the lowering of the coffin, and a 
floor for those who lower it, who in Scotland are commonly the relations or 
mourners, to stand on. In most cemeteries loose boards, or two or three 
boards nailed together so as to form a platform, are laid down on each side of 
the grave, leaving the ground at the end of the grave uncovered ; but this 
arrangement is &r from being so complete and commodious as a hinged plat- 
form. 

7%tf gravc'cover is a low roof of light boards, or of a frame and canvass, of 
dimensions sufficient to cover the opening of a newly made grave, and with 
handles like those of a hand-barrow, to allow of carrying it readily from place 
to place. Its use is to exclude rain or snow ; and also, in the case of a very 
deep grave, to guard against the danger of persons approaching too near its 
edge. In large cemeteries it is found convenient to have at all times two or 
three graves prepared, both common graves and brick graves, ready to admit of 
interments^ on the shortest notice. The unoccupied, brick graves are com- 

D 2 



36 ON LAYING OUT CEMETERIES. 

roonly protected by the ledger which is to constitute their permanent cover 
and nnish, but the common graves are protected from the weather by the 
portable cover described. 

The erave-mould is a box without either bottom or top, but with the sides 
and ends shaped like a coffin, to serve as a guide to the form of the grave- 
ridge, or mound of earth raised over a grave immediately after interment. 
When the pave is filled to the brim and properly rammed, the box is placed 
over the soil, and more is added and firmly rammed till the box is full, when 
the soil is nused in the middle, and rounded ofi^ in the manner seen in 
all neatly kept churchyards. AJfterwards the grave-ridge is covered with 
turf, or planted with flowers. In some of the London cemeteries the stone- 
crop is planted on the grave-ridge, and forms a very neat evergreen covering, 
always within bounds. Some of the evergreen saxifrages might be used for 
the same purpose ; and a fiiend has suggested that the common thrift would 
be an excellent plant, as its thick mass of dark green grass-like foliage would 
contrast with the light green of the grass forming the common covering of 
the cemetery. Where economy is an object, grass inoculation or grass seeds 
might be resorted to. 

A clergyman* t thelter is unnecessary where a tarpaulin or a movable shed 
is used over the grave ; but, where this is not the case, it may be formed 
of five pieces, viz. A flooring of boards, or, to prevent slipping when the 
boards are wet, as well as to render the floor l^hter, of wooden grating, 
raised one or two steps above the general surface, m order to give the reader 
of the service a more commanding position. To this floor three sides, each 
consistinff of a frame of canvass, are readily fixed by means of studs in the 
lower rails of the sides, dropping into holes in the framework of the bottom ; 
and they are as readily connected together by hooks dropping into eyes. 
The roof-piece, which ought to be raised a little in the middle to throw off 
the rain, can readily be dropped on four iron bolts, fixed in the upper ends of 
the styles of the sides. Tne whole may be painted black ; and, when not in 
use, it should be taken to pieces, and kept in a dry airy situation. A tent or 
movable structure, to cover not only the clergyman but the mourners 
assembled, either during rainy weather or hot sunshine, might be formed with- 
out difficultv, and at no peat expense. The framework might be light iron 
rods ; and the canvass might be so arranged as to be drawn up and let down 
like the awnings to tulip beds, or the outside gauze shades to hothouses. ( See 
Sub. Hort., fig. 115. p. 175.) 

The other articles of cemetery fiimiture having nothing particular in their 
construction, and being in use either by mechanics, ground workmen, or cuU 
tivators of the soil, do not require farther notice. 

Roots and Plants. — In some of the London cemeteries dahlias are planted 
in the summer season, and these are kept through the winter in the unoc- 
cupied catacombs, and, with geraniums and other greenhouse plants, are 
brought forward in spring in frames in the reserve ground, or in some other 
concealed part of the cemetery, or perhaps in an a4joining garden or nursery. 
In the reserve ground of the great cemetery at Rouen, there is a large green- 
house, and the curator lets out plants in pots during summer at so much 
a pot, undertaking to keep them watered and trimmed, to decorate graves 
and monuments. 



III. The Working and Manageuent of Cemeteries. 

By the working and management of cemeteries are to be understood the rules 
and regulations respecting interments, monuments, planting, &c., the fees to 
be taken, and the books to be kept by the clerk or sexton. We shall only 
enumerate such rules and regulations as we think ought to be general. 

The most important rules respecting a place of burial must necessarily be 
those which have reference to the sacredness of the place, the security n'om 



WORKING AND MANAGEMENT. 37 

disturbance of the bodies of the dead, the healthfulness of the living, and 
their improvement in sentiment and in morals. On these principles we would 
found the following rules, which should be absolute, even in cemeteries and 
churchyards as they are at present constituted. Some of these rules have 
been mentioned before, but we repeat them, in order that they may be 
strongly impressed on the mind of the reader. 

First, We would allow no grave to be dug, except in ground which never had 
been opened before. When a grave in which an interment has taken place at 
the usual depth of 6 ft. is opened, one of two things must happen ; either 
the bones at the bottom of the grave must be disturbed, or, to avoid this, the 
grave must not be dug to a sufficient depth. There may be three exceptions 
to this case, if the superintendent of the buryine-ground could be depended 
on : first, when the previous interment has taken place to a greater depth 
than 6 ft., which would be ascertainable if a proper register had been kept ; 
second, where the sur&ce of the burying-grouud was to be raised by the 
addition of a foot or two of earth all over it ; or third, when a child was to 
be interred, 4 or 5 feet, according to the age, &c., of the child, being sufficient 
in the latter case. Every grave whatever shoidd have a number cut in a 
number-stone, or on aome part of the plinth of the grave-stone or monument, 
if there be one, for the purpose of registration. 

Secondly^ We would allow no coffin to be placed nearer the surface of the 
ground than 6 ft. A German author has shown by calculation the different 
degrees of depth at which interments may take place, according to the age 
and other circumstances of the subject. His depth for adults is 6 ft., and 
for children under a year, 2 ft. The calculation may be useful in Germany, 
where, in many churchyards, the children are buried in a part of the ground 
by themselves, and their graves arranged according to the children's ages and 
lengths ; but, in England, the safer mode is to make the rule of having the 
grave 6 ft. in depth absolute, for it must be recollected that, in the case of 
children above three years of age, the bones, practically speaking, are almost 
as indestructible as those of ^ults. Hence we conclude that a child's 
grave ought no more to be opened for a second interment than that of a 
grown up person. 

Thxrdlt^f When more interments than one are to take place in a grave of the 
width calculated for one coffin, we would require a stratum of earth over 
each coffin of 6 ft. in depth ; and supposing one interment made in the 
bottom of a grave 12 ft., 20 ft., or 30 ft. deep, and 6 ft, of soil placed over 
the coffin, then on the surface of that soil we would deposit a coffin-shaped 
slate or flag-stone, as a preventive to the grave-digger from going deeper 
when he was excavating for a second interment. The protecting stone ought 
to be taken up when the second interment was made, and used after every 
interment till the last, when it might either be taken out for use in another 
deep grave, or, if it were a family grave, it might be left immediately over the 
coffin for protection of the bones, on the principle mentioned in p. 6. This 
rule will not prevent the interment of ten or twelve bodies in a grave as at 
present, but it will require such graves to be an immense deal deeper, viz. at 
the rate of 6 ft. for every interment; but there is no reason why graves should 
not be dug as deep as wells. A grave 18 ft. deep, however, will take three 
interments, which, at the low rate of 10*. each, as in the Abney Park Ce- 
metery, will give a return of 5,445/L per acre ; and in cemeteries where 25*. 
for each interment is charged, of above 13,600/. per acre. 

Fourthly, When a common or private earth grave was once filled to within 
6 ft. of the surface, it should on no account whatever be opened at however 
distant a period. 

Fifthly, Brick graves which are filled with earth after each interment, we 
would make siftject to exactly the same laws as deep earth graves : that is, 
we would have a stratum of soil 6 ft. in thickness over each coffin. We 
would allow no interments to take place in brick graves, in which each coffin 
was not either covered with 6 ft. of soil, or with a flagnstone hermeti* 

D 3 



38 ON LATINO OUT C£M£TEBI£9» 



caUy sealed. Where the system of bermedcally sealing was projMsed to be 
adopted, we would require the walk of the graves to be built with Roman 
cement, every coffin to be separated by a flag-stone resting on ledges project- 
ing from the walls, the joints of this flag-stone to be made good with cement, 
and a coating of cement of not less than 3 in> in thickness [Jaced over the 
entire stone. Or, as a substitute for the use of flag-stones, we would sur- 
round and cover every coffin with a mass of Roman cement, so that it should 
be completely embedded and enveloped in that material. By this hermetically 
sealing mode of interment, a great many bodies might be got into one grave ;. 
but it is evidently too expensive for general purposes : for large fiumlies it 
may be the cheapest mode, consistent with safety to the living ; but as there is 
always the possibility of desecration at some (ttture period, ror our own feel- 
ings we should greatly prefer lateral (side by side) interments in the free 
soil. 

Sixthly, We would allow of few or no catacombs or vaults in buildings, 
and certainly of none in or under churches, or other places where assem- 
blies of human beings were held ; but, as many catacombs and vaults have 
been built in the public cemeteries, in the case of all interments^ in them, 
the catacomb or vault should be hermetically sealqd the same day on 
which the interment took place, and should on no account whatever be again 
opened. Nothing can be more dangerous with reference to the health of the 
living, than the mode prevalent in the new cemeteries, of merely placing an 
open grating in front of the coffins deposited in catacombs. Were it not for 
the current of air established through the vaults, by which the mephitic gas 
is carried off as fast as it is produced, it would be impossible for a Hving per- 
son to exist for an hour in these cellars for the dead. But even if these ca- 
tacombs were each, when a coffin is placed in it, hermetically sealed in fronts 
there is scarcely one of them so carefully constructed as to be air-tight, so 
that the mephitic gas is certain to escape from some part of the catacomb, 
more especially when we consider the expansive power of air when com* 
pressed. And for what is all this disgusting boxing up of dead bodies, as if 
to bid d^ance to the law of native 2 We cannot think it in good taste 
to practise this mode of sepulture, and therefore we would render it expen- 
sive by such a heavy tax as should serve for the interment of the poor in a 
more careful manner, for the general (muunent of the cemetery, or for go- 
vernment purposes generally. Nor do we think it could be considered op- 
pressive to pass a law obliging all bodies now in vaults or catacombs under 
churches, chapels, &c., to be taken out and buried in the free soil. 

Seventhfyt We would encourage the erection of handsome monuments, and 
the inscription on them of moral sentiments, the former to improve the taster 
and the latter to cultivate the heart and affections. In both we would allow 
individual taste to be displayed ; but at the same time we would encourage 
individuals to submit their designs to meti of acknowledged skill, and to 
listen to their hints for improvement. 

Eighthly, We would at all times keep every part of the cemetery in the 
highest order. The grass should be kept short and smooth by frequent 
mowing ; the gravel free from weeds and smooth by frequent weeding and 
rolling; the edges, which we would form of concealed bricks or tiles (Jigs^ 30. 

and 31.), low, and 

constantly clipped ; 

and the leaves, as 

they drop from the 

trees, would be 

picked up the same 

day on which they 

fell ; litter of every 

Fig' 30. Concealed Brick Edfiing. ^jq^ picked Up the ^^- ^^* Conceaied TOe Edging. 

moment it appeared; and the walls, chapel, lodge, gates, drains, &c., kept 
in cxNistant repair. 





WOBKING AND MANAGEMENT. 39 

Ninthly y To iniure the hieh keeping of monuments of every kind, who** 
ever erected one should, at the time it was put up, pay to the proprietors or 
directors of the cemetery a sum considered sufficient to preserve it in repair 
in perpetuity, or for a certain number of years.* Every person having shrubs 
or flowers planted on a grave, we would require to pay a sum sufficient to 
keep them trimmed for such a number of years as tney might think fit ; or 
to keq> them in order themselves, under the penalty of having them rooted 
up and grass substituted, if neglected for a period varyine according to the 
kind of plants. Flowers and roses require to be attended to weekly during 
summer, but evergreen shrubs may grow for years with scarcely any attend* 
ance. As flowers and low shrubs are very apt to get tawdry when neglected, 
as soon as keeping them in order ceased to be paid for, or otherwise effected, 
the plants should be taken up and grass substituted. The turf mounds over 
graves, and the number-stones ^of which, as already observed, there ought to 
be one to every grave, whether it have a monument or not), ought, of course, 
to be kept in order by the proprietors of the cemetery. 

Tenthly^ No dogs or improper persons ; no smoking, drinking, or even 
eating ; no running or jumping, laughing, whistling, or singing, or other 
practice that might indicate a want of reverence for the place, should be per-* 
mitted. No person should be allowed to walk on the graves, or to cross 
from one walk or green path to another in places where the ground was fllled 
with graves. 

Eleventhfy, Wherever there was the least risk of a grave being reopened for 
a second interment, or for any other purpose, or even where it was desired to 
protect the bones in the case of some future unforeseen change taking place, 
such as making a road through the c^netery or building on it, we would intro* 
duce a guard or follower of stone over the last-interred coffin, as already 
described, p. 6. and p. 37. 

If the foregoing rules were riadly attended to, cemeteries, whether in 
town or country, would be as healthy as gardens or pleasure-grounds, and 
would form the most interesting of ill places for contemplative recreation. 
As one great object in forming and managing a cemetery, whether small 
or large, is to render it inviting by being ornamental and highly kept, it is not 
desirable that all the monuments should be crowded together in one place, 
and all die graves without monuments placed in another part of the ground. 
It appears better that the monuments should be seen one after another, with 
plain spaces intervening ; and for this reason it ought to be a rule that any 
person purchasing a grave may choose the spot where he will have it, pro- 
vided he makes known whether he intends to erect any monument and what 
sort. This rule, however, roust be taken in connexion with another, 
viz. that it is desirable to have a considerable display of monuments on the 
borders laid out on purpose for them along the roads and main walks, and 
along the boundary wall. The finest ancient monuments in the churchyards 
of Scotland, and we know nothing to equal them in England out of West* 
minster Abbey, are the sepulchrd structures projected from the walls of 
Grey Friars churchyard in Edinburgh, and the Cathedral burying-ground at 
Glasgow. These in general are not vaults, catacombs, or bnck graves, but 
interments in the free soil, where the husband and wife lie side by side, and 

* The sum per annum, and the number of years during which the party 
wishes the monument, grave-stone, shrubs, or flowers, kept in order, being 
agreed on, it is only necessary to find, by the annuity tables (say, Inwood\ 
12mo, 5«.), the present value of this sum, at the rate of interest obtainable in 
the public funds. The sum required for keeping a monument in repair, even 
in perpetuity, as by no means so great as might be expected. The ordinary 
charge for keeping a common grave and grave-stone in repair is only l#. a year, 
and the present value of an annuity of that amount, payable for ever, reckoning 
the interest of money at % per cent, is 2/. Hence, 5/. paid down would give 
2». 6(/. a year for ever, whicn is quite enough for most monuments. 

D 4 



40 ON LAYING OUT OEMETEBIES. 

the space is enclosed by highly wrought iron railings, and superb architectoral 
and sculptural compositions fixed against the wall. Sometimes the whole is 
covered by an architectural canopy, supported on stone columns. The ar- 
chitecture is of the time of the Jameses, elaborate in composition, rich in 
decoration, and learned, scriptural, heraldic, or quaint, in inscription ; and there 
is nothing offensive in the mode of inhumation. In our opinion, it is in far 
better taste for a family to expend money in purchasing as much ground in the 
opeit part of a cemetery as will allow the husband and wife, and some of their 
children, if they have any, making an allowance for a certain number of both 
sexes to die young, and of the females to die unmarried, to be buried side by side, 
than to expend it in burying in vaults or catacombs, or even in expensive 
monuments. In the cemeteries about London we frequently see monu- 
ments that have cost upwards of a hundred pounds placed over what are 
called family brick graves, in which, perhaps, the half dozen bodies con- 
stituting the family have been deposited one over the other, without inter- 
vening soil or flae-stones hermetically sealed, so as to constitute a mass of 
putreraction appalling to contemplate ; more especially as contrasted with the 
chaste marble sarcophagus or other monument placed over it. Such a disgust- 
ing mode of interment, to which men have been driven by various causes, 
which have led to charges so high that they cannot be borne, is not for a 
moment to be compared to the interment of a family side by side in the free 
soil. There is nothing at all offensive in the latter mode ; nothing to hinder 
such interments from taking place in a shrubbery or pleasure-ground, or a flower- 
garden. If the citizens of London were to reflect on this, instead of laying 
out a large sum on a brick grave or a vault, and afterwards on a monument to 
be placed over it, they would lay it out in purchasing a greater extent of 
territorial surface, and m enclosing this surface in such a manner as to mark it 
for their own. The family name, deeply cut on the stone forming the coping 
or finish of the enclosing barrier, would say more for the taste of the owner, 
than a thousand pounds laid out on a monument over a vault or brick grave; 
The most desirable part of a cemetery for small grave enclosures of this 
kind is against the boundary wall, as at Grey Friars, Edinburgh, the Glasgow 
Cathedral, and the old burymg-ground at Munich ; but it is singular that, in 
almost all the new London cemeteries, this very desiitible situation for graves 
and monuments is occupied by a belt of trees, as if the cemetery were to be 
laid out exactly on the same plan as Brown's parks, with their surrounding 
belts and interspersed clumps. 

If men of landed property, however small its extent, were to reflect on this 
subject, we are persuaded they would greatly prefer lading their bones in a 
suitable spot in tneir own grounds, than having them piled up in any family 
grave, vault, or catacomb whatever. 

It ought to be a general rule to place handsome monuments at particular 
points of view ; such as at angles formed by the junction or intersection of 
roads or walks, terminations to straight walks, points seen from the entrances 
and from the chapel, &c. 

One of the most important rules respecting monuments is, that they be all 
placed on solid foundations of masonry reaching as deep as the bottom of the 
grave, by the means ah*eady described (p. 29.), or by other equally efficient 
means. A rectangular tomb over a brick grave will, of course, rest on the 
side walls of the grave ; but over a common earth grave it will require to be 
supported, either by four pillars brought up from the bottom of the grave, 
or by two pillars at each end, founded 2 or 3 feet deep in the soil, and 2 or 
3 feet distant from the edge of the grave. In this way rectangular tombs, or 
any description of large monument, may be placed over earth graves of any 
depth whatever, and in cases where it would be practically impossible to 
bnng up pillars from the bottom of the grave. 

It is never desirable to form two graves adjoining each other at the same 
time, or even after a shorter period than two or three years; because the 
narrow partition of firm soil between them is apt to give way. At the same 



WORKING AND MANAGEMENT. 41 

time, if there is any particular reason for graves being so formed, such as a 
wife deairing to be buried by the side of her husband, &c.| the weak side of 
the grave can be supported by grave-boards. 

The most economical mode of using the ground in any cemetery would be 
to begin at one end or side, mark out the graves, and use only every alternate 
one ; then, when the ground was once gone over, to go over it a second time, 
and occupy all the blank graves. As, however, it has long been customary 
for persons purchasing graves to have the libertv of choice, the most economi- 
cal mode cannot often be adopted. When the interments are to commence at 
one end of the cemetery, and the whole of the ground is to be occupied as 
they proceed, that end ought always to be the lowest; because, when the inter- 
ments have commenced at the highest point and been carried down the slope, 
considerable inconvenience has been found from the fluid putrescent matter 
following the inclination of the ground. (See Picton in Arch, Mag. vol. iv. 
p. 431.) 

No part of a cemetery ought to be exclusively devoted to common graves, 
because, as a number of coffins are placed in each grave, there would in this 
part of the cemetery be accumulated such a mass of putrescent matter as 
would contaminate the air of the whole, and render the locality insalubrious 
for very many years. 

With a view to preventing waste of ground, the proprietors, or director, or 
curator of the cemetery ought to place common graves either where private 
graves are least likely to be taken, or where a private grave with a monument 
might interfere with a grave already existing. Hence it may frequently be 
desirable to place a common grave, or any private grave to which there is a 
certainty of no monument being erected, on each side of a grave with a 
conspicuous monument. Even two or three intervening common graves may 
sometimes be desirable among monuments, in order that each structure may 
have its full effect on the spectator while approaching it, as well as while 
directly opposite to it. 

The mound over a common grave, while it is liable to be reopened, should 
not be finished with turf or flowers ; because, to open a grave with the 
finished character thereby given is more shocking to the feelings than to 
open an unfinished grave. 

Every grave, whether private or common, to which there is to be no 
monumental stone, should still be finished with a green mound, which itself 
is a kind of monument, and maintains respect for the spot so long as it 
remains. 

Though levelling the surface of ground filled with graves having no stone 
monuments, instead of finishing the grave with a raised grass mound, renders 
the grass much easier mown, yet, as it confounds all distinction between 
ground filled with graves and ground not so filled, we would not on 
any account follow this practice. The Society of Friends and the Moravians 
adopt this mode, and we admit the superior neatness of their grounds on this 
account ; but we disapprove of it, more especially in the case of the Quakers 
(who forbid even flat stones with inscriptions, which the Moravians admit), 
because it exhibits nothing characteristic of a place of interment. As it 
destroys the distinctive feature of a grave-yard, it cannot be considered in 
just taste, and ought, therefore, as we think, not to be adopted. Technically, 
the appearance of the turf mound over the grave is the expression of purpose 
or use, and this expression is essential to every work of art. 

In all large cemeteries there ought to be some graves of every kind, ready 
made and fit for being occupied at the shortest notice. To protect these 
graves from the rain or snow, the grave-cover described p. 35. should be 
placed over them. 

In order to effect the registration of graves and interments, which we have 
stated to be an important part of the working of a cemetery, it is necessary to 
recur to the mode of numbering the graves described in a former page. This 
may either be done by the mode of squares common in large cemeteries as at 



I 



42 ON LAYING OUT CEMETBEIE8. 

[weient lud out, and exhibited in fig. 1. in p. 16. ; or, in miftU c 
churchyards, by laving out the cround in biXMul bonlers along thi 
walls, and in double beds, calcuTatiiig the u^Mci^ of both beds an 
ainvle graves, and having a number-stone at each end of the b 
indicating the number of single graves it will contain, and t 
in which the numbers are counted, as shown in fig. IT. in 
which the stone at a contains Nob. I, and 50., b^ng the fi 
graves on the bed ; end the stone h contahiB No. 25., bei 
number <ln one side, and No. 26., being the first number on tiii 
The nest t>ed will commence with No. 5 1 ., and so on thrc 
cemetery. This mode of numbering requires that every grave 
ground purchased, which is to be larger than the space allowed To 
grave, must be a multiple of that space : thus, a vault of the i 
requires the space of one grave for the stair and anotfaer for the 
hence it would be recorded in the cemetery books under two n 
vault of double or treble the aize would require the space of four 
gtaves, and thus absorb four or six numbers, and so on. This 
which we have adopted in the Cambrid^ Cemetery (in which, ir 
with existing prejudices, we made provision for constructing vaul 
combs, if they should be required), because it is of small size ; bi 
a large scale we would first lay out every part of the cemetery 
borders, and next have one nun^r for eadi bed and border. Th< 
in each bed or border should be numbered in the order in whi 
made ; and in the roister the numbers of the bed or border, and 
of the interment, would be found together. We have already (p 
our reasons for considering this a better mode of laying out a ce 
the one generallv adopted, of throwing it into squares. 

This mode of throwing the ground into squares is at presen 
most cemeteries, more especiallv where, from the numerous tur 
winding walks, the ground is laid out in very irr^ular shapes. In 
of such cemeteries Uie practice is to number everj grave or vault 
in which it is made, and indicate its place in the cemetery by arete 
square in wUch it is situated, and by laying it down in the plan oi 
in the cemetery Map Book in the manner hereafter described. 

As the interments require to be numbered, to indicate the ord 
they are made, as well as to indicate their place in the cemeter; 
that every grave has two numbers ; the one indicating the pre 
the cemetery in which the grave is to be found, and the other the t 
at which bodies have been deposited in it ; because family graves 
have only one number referring to their locality/have several refc 
interments made in them. By having an index to the interment n 
another to the numbers of the graves, and both ref«Ting to the Re 
the particulars may be obtained of every funeral that has talcea 
cemetery from its opening to the time b^g. 

The cemetcTy booki which require to be kept are as follows : — 

1. An Order Book, in which are entered the date, name, descript 
abode of the deceased, mode and time of the intended burial. 



and, the blanks of both columns being filled up, one column is n 
the other is cut out and sent to the sexton. A receipt for the ii 
eating the leading particulars, is at the same time given to the um 
2. A Rtgitter Hook, which is filled up after the funeral has take: 
contains columns extending across two folio pagei, for the follow 
lars : — number of the interment _; number of the grave j nan 
scription of the deceased; last residence ; disease ot wbicJi he 
date, and hour of burial ; in what part of the cemetery ; what J 
distinction ; purchased by whom and under what date ; earn paii 
terment ; sum paid for keeping the grave-atone, monument, or fi\ 



INNOVATIONS SUGGESTED. 43 

order ; time during which they are to be kept in order for the sum paid ; 
name of the undertaker ; name of the clergyman who performed the ceremony; 
name of the sexton.— AH these particulars are entered in the order in which 
they are here enumerated. 

3. A Ledger, in which an account is opened for each grave in the following 
manner : two folio pages contain the same number of columns, and the same 
headings as in the Register, but the body of the pages is divided into spaces, 
one of which is allotted for each number of a grave, in the same manner as 
the pages of a ledger are divided into spaces for each name or account, 
^hich has been opened ; and in this space, which represents the transac- 
tions which take place with the grave it represents, are inserted the number 
of each of the different funerals that have taken place in it. For example, 
a brick grave, 60 ft. deep, may have ten different interments of as many dif- 
ferent numbers, dates, and names, of the deceased ; and hence a space at 
least equal to ten lines will be left for it. A private grave, 36 ft. deep, which 
will only contain six coffins, requires only six lines ; a vault of twenty cata- 
combs a proportionate space ; and a single catacomb in a public vault only 
one line. The utility of such a ledger, in the case of extensive cemeteries, is 
exemphfied in the case of that of Kensal Green, as any one may be con- 
vinced of by applying at the office, 95. Great Russell Street, London. 

4. A Map Book* — In the cemetery office there ought to be one map 
showing the entire cemetery with all the roads, walks, squares, beds, &c., and 
even the trees and shrubs correctly laid down. Then there ought to be a 
book in which every square or bed is laid down on a sufficiently large scale 
to admit of inserting in it the plan of each particular grave. The scale for 
these separate squares in the Kensal Green Cemetery book is 2 in. to 6 ft., 
and in the Tower Hamlets Cemetery 3 in. to 8 ft. In small cemeteries laid 
out in beds, like the Cambridge Cemetery, such a map book may be dispensed 
with ; but whare the imaginary square system of laying out is adopted it is 
essential. 

- 5. Some subordinate books are convenient for abridging labour, and in-> 
suring accuracy, such as printed forms for certificates of registry, for per- 
mission within a. certain time to place a head-stone or other monument, for 
receipts for cash or fees, &c. The books for the Kensal Green Cemetery 
were prepared by Messrs. C. and E. Lay ton, Stationers, 150. Fleet Street ; 
those of the East London Ccanetery by Mr. T. H. Hoppe, 79. Strand ; and 
those of the Tower Hamlets Cemetery, the last London cemetery which has 
been formed, by Mr. E. Colyer, 17. Fenchurch Street. The common business 
accounts which require to be kept, of course, do not differ from those in 
use in general business. 

We have omitted to notice some minor details required for the working 
of a cemetery, but they are such as will readily occur in practice ; an4 
they may be foreseen by procuring a printed paper of the rules and re- 
gulations of any of the prmctpal London cemeteries, or of the burying-grounds 
belonging to the Incorporated Trades of Calton, Edinburgh. The latter, 
which have been kindly forwarded to us by Mr. Hay, the recorder and su- 
perintendant, are remarkable for their comprehensiveness and efficiency. 

The curator of a cemetery ought to be a man of intelligence, and of cul- 
tivated feelings, with a taste for and some knowledge of gardening ; for aU 
which reasons we think the situation one well adapted for a middle-aged gar- 
dener. 



rV. Certain Innovations suggested relative to the Selection of 
Ground for Cemeteries, Mode of performing Funerals, etc. 

Would not a law, enacting as follows, answer every purpose of Mr. Mac- 
kinnon's bill ? That no graves should be made except on ground that never 
was opened before; that, when only one coffin was placed in a grave, it ^ould 



44 ON LAYING OUT CEMETEBIES. 

not be less than 6 ft. below the surface; that, when more than one coffin was 
to be contained in the same grave, each coffin should be separated from the 
other by a layer of earth not less than 6 ft. in thickness ; that all burying in 
vaults and catacombs be discontinued; and that no new burial-grounds be 
formed in London within two miles of St. Paul's, nor in country towns withia 
half a mile of their suburbs. Such a law would at once prevent interments 
from being made in most of the London burial-grounds, while it would admit 
of. all the unoccupied ground, whether in London or out of it, being used ; and 
thus no injustice would be committed towards those who have recently en- 
larged their burying-ground ; it would, at the same time, check the disgusting 
and dangerous practice of burying ten or twelve bodies close upon one another 
in one grave, now practised both in the old churchyards and in the new 
cemeteries. 

A law to attain these objects, combined with r^ulations to prevent graves 
from being reopened within sixty years if in the country, or not at all if 
in a town, would, if strictly enforced, probably be found sufficient for every 
purpose, as far as health is concerned. Under the influence of such a law 
there seems to be no objection to every sect having its separate cemetery 
or cemeteries ; to individuals forming cemeteries as commercial speculations ; 
or to different trades or professions having their separate cemeteries. The 
greater the number of present cemeteries, the greater the number of future 
public gardens. 

The law should be modified with reference to Jews and Quakers, since it is a 
part of the religion of the former that no grave is ever opened a second time ; 
and the latter adopt the same practice, though not, perhaps, from religious 
principle, but from a general regard to decency and propriety. It would be 
sufficient to enact that the burying-grounds of these religious bodies, in 
common with others, when once filled, should be shut up for ever, if in 
towns, and that the new cemeteries opened by them should always be in the 
country. 

AH burial-grouiids whatever within the precincts of towns, when once 
filled, that is, when the whole ground has been buried in, even if with only 
one body in a grave, should be shut up as burying-grounds, and a few years 
afterwards opened as public walks or gardens ; the grave-stones and all 
architectural or sculptural ornaments being kept in repair at the expense of 
the town or village ; such trees, shrubs, or plants being planted among the 
graves as the town council, or, if a village, the parish vestry, may determine. 

The distance from a town at which a cemetery ought to be placed will 
depend a good deal on the elevation of the site, the nature of the soil, and the 
sources from which the town obtains its water. If there are pervious strata 
lying on impervious strata, immediately under the surface of the ground 
intended as a cemetery, and these strata traverse ground without the cemetery 
in which wells are likely to be dug, and have a descent towards it, the mois- 
tare of decomposition will be carried by the rains along the strata to the wells, 
and to all artificial depositories, or natural outlets for the water. An elevated 
situation, and a soil oi gravel, sand, or chalk, to a great depth, is evidently pre- 
ferable to all others, because the moisture generated will be carried perpen- 
dicularly down by the rains, and the gases evolved will be carried off by the 
winds. No human dwellings ought to be made within a cemetery, unless we 
except the entrance lodge, which might, if desirable, always be made outside 
the gates, or so as not to have all its windows looking directly on the graves. 
It would frequently be advantageous to have a space outside the cemetery 
fence, of 50 or 60 feet in width, to be planted with trees, varying in height 
according to the nature of the situation and soil ; the object being to disguise 
the view of the graves from the nearest houses, without producing too much 
shelter to impede the action of the sun and winds on the surface of the 
cemetery. 

Such a law as we contemplate should prohibit interment in churches or 
public buildings ; whether in vaults, catacombs, or in the floor of the church 



INNOVATIONS SUGGESTED. 45 

or vault, without any exception whatever ; it should prohibit the formation of 
private vaults, or private or family graves or graveyards, in towns, or any 
where except in the country, and there they should be placed in spots at 
least 100 ft. from any other building. The law should also, as we think, 
enforce the clearing out of all public vaults under churches or chapels, 
whether in town or country, and not even excepting those of the newly 
formed public cemeteries. That the vaults and catacombs of these cemeteries 
are liable, to a considerable extent, to the same objections as those in the old 
burying-grounds and under churches, is a fact which can be proved by refer- 
ence to what has taken place both in the vaults of the Kensal Green Ceme- 
tery and in those of the London and Westminster Cemetery * ; and, in short, 
any person walking through them will require no other evidence than tbat 
of his own senses. 

We may, perhaps, be thought unreasonable in wishing to prevent inter- 
ments in Westminster Abbey and St. Paul's, or in the royal vault at Windsor, 
but we consider that the memory of the great men of the nation, including 
even our sovereigns, would be quite as much honoured by having their bodies 
buiied in the free soil in the country, and appropriate monumental cenotaphs 
erected to their memory in these and other national buildings, as by having 
their bodies buried under their monuments, or preserved in wooden or leaden 
cases in vaults or catacombs. Surely it is pleasanter in idea, when looking on 
the statue of Dr. Johnson in St Paul's, to think of his remains being covered 
by the green turf in the open ground of a cemetery or a churchyard, than to 
think of them lying in black earth, saturated with putrescent moisture, under 
the damp paved floor of the crypt of a cathedral. There is no doubt that 
burying m sepulchres, by which the body is preserved from mixing with the 
soil, is of great antiquity, and it was doubtless justified by the opinions of 
mankind in the early ages of history ; but it may be fairly asserted that the 
practice is not in conformity with the opinions and spirit of the present age. 
Security from desecration was, no doubt, a main object for this mode of 
burial, and certainly it was a protection from the hj^ena, the fox, the dog, and 
other wild carnivorous animals that were common in the early stages of civi- 
lisation ; but neither then nor now is it any permanent security against 
desecration by the human species. On the contrary, it is a certain mode of 
ending in desecration, sooner or later. Witness the mummies of Egypt, 
unprotected even by the Pyramids ; or look to what has been taking place 
for many years past in the vaults of churches in London, as given in evidence 
in the Parliamentary Report, which we have so often quoted ; or turn to the 
volumes of travellers on the Continent since the peace of 1814.f The truth is^ 



* Mr. Jones, undertaker, residing in Devereux Court, Essex Street, Strand, 
placed a body in a leaden coffin and the other usual cases, and deposited it in 
the catacombs of Kensal Green Cemetery. It had remained there about three 
months, when he was informed by the secretary of the cemetery company that 
** the coffin leaked, and that he must see to it immediately." Mr. Jones, 
accompanied by his assistants, went to the cemetery, removed the body from 
the horizontal stone resting-place, which was sealed very carefully at the ends 
and round the sides. It was necessary to remove the lid of the outer coffin 
and turn out the body, enclosed, as is usual, in the shell and leaden coffin ; 
these were reversed, when it was found that a small hole existed at the under 
part of the leaden coffin. This hole was enlarged with a gimlet by one of the 
assistants, Mr. Thomas Moxley ; the gas which escaped extinguished a lighted 
candle three distinct times, and he was rendered incapable of following his 
occupation for several weeks. {Appendix to Report on the Health of Towns , 
p. 208.) 

f In the autumn of 1813 we passed two days in and about the small town 
of Kowna, on the Niemen, celebrated for its lime trees and its honey ; and, 
looking into the vaults of the church, we observed the floor covered with 



INNOVATIONS SUGOESTED. 47 

Ceinetery Company, knowing the difficulty as well as the expense of obtain- 
ing ground for burial, (as a cemetery always depreciates the property around,) 
and contempiating that a Bill may pass to prohibit burials is the crowded me- 
tropotis, offer seren acres of their ground at Kensal Green, adjoiniDg the 
Cemetery, for the burial of the poor, under such regulations as may be 
thought advisable.*' (^Report, &c, p. 8.) Fortunately for the public, the calcu- 
lation of the directors is altogether erroneous. An acre contains 43,560 square 
feet, and supposing the pauper graves to be 6 ft. 6 in. by 2 ft. 6 in., this is equal 
to l&l square ft., and hence, dividing 4^3^560 ft. by that sum, we have 2,680 
graves per acre, which multiplied by seven gives 18,760 graves in seven acres ; 
something more than one seventh of the number which the directors say the 
seven acres will contain. But let us take even this limited number of 18,760 
graves, and multiply it by 10, the number of pauper interments which the 
directors propose to make in a ^ve, and we have 187,600 bodies deposited 
in seven acres. Something less indeed than the 1,335,000 bodies which the 
directors propose to get into that space, but still enough to put the public 
on their guard against men who can hazard such statements ; for it must 
be remembered that this error in the calculation has nothing to do with 
the intentions o£ the directors. One million three hundred and thirty-five 
thousand bodies deposited in seven acres may well depreciate the pro- 
perty around. If it be true, as Mr. Walker, the author of GtUheringt from 
Graveyards, observes {Report on the HeaUh ofToumty p. 412.), that " layers 
of earth, of several feet in depth, can no more intercept the transmission of 
gas into the atmosphere, than they can by their density prevent the infiltra- 
tion of water/' then indeed these seven acres, if occupied even with the smaller 
number of 187,600 bodies, might be considered as the crater of a volcano, 
vomiting forth poison in the form of a column of gaseous matter, which, chang- 
ing in direction with every chan^ of the wind, would poison the atmosphere 
for many miles round ; while the water of decomposition would poison the 
springs of the subsoil. 

It is lamentable to witness in the proprietors of cemeteries, and in some 
members of the Committee for enquiring into the Effect of Interments in 
Towns, the manner in which the subject (h the interment of paupers, and of 
the poor generally, is discussed. We do not limit the remark to the proprie- 
tors of cemeteries, the committee referred to, or to the rich or influential 
classes in this country, but extend it also to every other class which con-^ 
siders itself above the poor ; for example, to parish vestries. One would think 
that the poor were considered as animals of a different species, or as totally 
without the feelings which belong to the rest of mankind. While the bodies 
of the dead rich in every capitd in Europe are to be placed singly in cata- 
combs or graves, those of the poor are to be trenched in in layers as in 
France, thrown into a common pit as in Naples and Leghorn, or buried ten 
or fifteen in a grave as in London.* Some of the committee who examined 
witnesses seem pKarticularly anxious to abridge the process of taking care of 
the poor, by placing quicklime in their coffins. The questions put by some 
of these persons evinced, in our opinion, great want of humane feeling gene- 
rally, and an utter disregard of the feelings of the poor. 

** Should you have any objection, if there was a Uw made that there 



* The price of land, within ten miles of London, is much too high to admit 
of burying paiqiers singly in the London cemeteries ; but one thousand, or 
even two thousand, acres of poor waste land, admirably adapted for burying- 

found, might be purchased in the parishes of Woking, Cnobham, Horsall, 
erfari^t^ Pyrford, &c., at horn AiL to 8/. per acre. The land alluded to is 
too poor to admit of cultivation for arable purposes; but it would grow 
yews, junipers, pines, firs, and other cemetery plants, with which it might be 
planted in rows, in such a manner that the graves could be made between the 
rows. 

♦d 8 



INNOVATIONS SUGGESTED. 49 

an extent as to be filled with graves in 14 years. At the end of seven years 
more it may revert to the landlord, and be cultivated, planted, or laid down 
in grass, in any manner that may be thought proper ; the landlord binding 
himself and his successors by such a deed as should be inseparable from the 
transfer of the property, that the field should never again be let for the same 
purpose, or for building on. To render this the more certain, the transaction 
ought to be recorded in some public register, and also on monumental stones 

Kiaced at the angles of the field, or one stone in its centre. Landed property 
eld by public companies, as being least likely to change proprietors, is pe- 
culiarly suitable for this kind of occupation. There is, tor example, along 
the Uxbridge Road, near Acton, an estate belonging to the Goldsmiths' Com- 
pany, Which would make an admirable cemetery of this description. 

We see no objection to taking land for temporary cemeteries at a con-> 
siderable distance firom a town, provided it were on the line of a railwav, 
as, for example, at Bagshot Heath ; and we can see no difficulty in the dif- 
ferent districts of such a city as London having a place of temporary deposit 
for their dead, whether paupers who paid nothing, or poor persons who 
paid moderately. There are depositories of this kind in Frankfort and 
Munich* ; and they are found to aad greatly to the convenience, economy, and 
salubrity of persons having only small dwelling-houses, and moderate incomes. 
Were depositories of this kind established in the metropolis, it might be so 
arranged that a number of bodies should be conveyed to the place of interment 
at the same time, and this might be done with appropriate decency and respect 
in a railway or a steam-boat hearse. There are thousands of acres of the poorest 
gravelly soil, which the Southampton railway passes through, that at present 
do not rent for more than 3t. or 4f. an acre, which would afibrd a cemetery 
sufficient for all the poor of London, and the rich also, for ages to come; and 
the same may be said of some thousands of acres not far from the Thames, in the 
neighbourhood of Chertsey. In proportion as the land was filled with graves, 
it might be planted with trees, or laid down in grass. 

^ We can see no sufficient reason against having permanent monumental 
cemeteries, as well as temporary ones which are to have no monuments, 
laid out on poor soils at great distances from London, along the railroads. 



* The cemetery of Frankfort on the Main is entered through an open pro^ 
pylaeum between two wings. In one of these wings is the residence of the 
overseer and assistants ; while the other contains ten cells, in which bodies in 
coffins are deposited for some days previously to interment. As a precaution 
against premature inhumation, cords are fixed to the fingers of the deceased, 
communicating with a bell, so that the least motion, in case of a person's 
revival, would be instantly made known to an attendant stationed in the 
apartment adjoining these cells. There is also a spacious waiting-hall on each 
side of the entrance, for the accommodation of those who accompany the 
funerals. It is strictly prohibited to inter any corpse till infallible signs of de- 
composition shall have become obvious ; and, though this might occasion con- 
siderable inconvenience in a private house, no evil results from it here, because 
interment takes place immediately afterwards. There is also a receiving 
house (Leichenhaus) to the large cemetery at Munich. (^Arch. Mag., vol. ii. 
p. 136.) 

The general cemetery at Munich is surrounded by a border of trees and 
shrubs, with the exception of one end, in which is placed a semicircular build- 
ing, composed of an open colonnade in fron^ with vaults underneath. In the 
centre of this semicircular building is a projection behind, called the Leichenhaus, 
containing three large rooms, in two of which (one for males and the other for 
females) th^ dead, as shrouded and deposited in their coffins by their relations, 
are exposed to view for forty-ei^ht hours before they are committed to the 
earth. The other room is for suicides and unowned bodies. 



50 ON LAYING OUT CEHBTBK1E8. 

with coopernthe railioail hearaes, and other m _ _ . 

which would adaat of more ground being spered in the suburbs Sot pnWic 
^rdena nod breatiuag-^acta. Nor does thore appear to us any ohjeetion to 
union workhouses hsving a portion of their gsrden grouud used as a ceiiieCa7r 
to be restored to cultiration after a tuflicient time had elapsed. The boMCS 
in this and in eve^ case where the ground was planted or culdvated ironid 
be at least 6 ft. below the suiftce, m^, where it was ihou^ necesaarj, tlic^ 
might be protected by corerii^-plates, as already descnbnl. Proprietors 
of land, we think, ought to be encouraged to bury on then own grouDds 
iu the free soil ; a proper officer, who might be the laeal r^strar, or one o£ 
the church wardens, taking cognizance thu the ^ve was of the proper depth, 
and that all the other conditiofis necessary for insuring decency and. saliiVaTty 
were fulfilled. 

lite expense of funerals has last year been consider^l^ leasetied about the 
metropohs by the introductioa of one-borse hearses, which coDTcy the coffin 
and six mourners to the place of interment. These ^pear to have been first 
•Ingested in I83T, by Mr. J. B. Ooft, in an article in the Medtaiatft Ma- 
gaxine, vol. xsTii. p. 146., and the idea has subsequently, in ISIS, been 
improved on and carried into execution by Hr, Shillib^, to whom tbe 
British public are indebted for tbe Grst introduction of the omnibus. Mr. 
Shillftieer'B funeral carriage embraces in itself a hearse snd a monmitig coacb, 
is very neat, and takes liltle from the pomp, and notlung irom tbe decency of 
^e ordmary funeral obsequies, while it greatly reduces the expense; the fdre 
of a hearse with a single horse costing only 1/. !«., and with two horses, 
\L Hi. 6d. These carriages have one division for the coffin, and anotber 
for six mourners ; and when tbe ct^m has been taken out for iDterment, 
before the mourner* reenter to return home, the front part of the carries 
and the fore wbeds are contracted and drawn dose up to the hinder or coocb 
part of the carriage by means of a screw, so that the part for containing tbe 
coffin disappears, and the whole, when retumiug from the place of interment, 
has the appearance of a mourning coach. The inventiaii is u^enioua and most 

Perttaps the expeuse to tbe poor might be still farther lessened by tbe nae 
of light low four-wheeled vehicles for conveying tlie corpse, which might be 
moved by a man, ot by two men. We see no reason why the attendanta at 
the funeral of a poor man should not move this carriage by turns ; as in 
various country phces, more especially in Scotland, where the bodies even of 
respectable farmers are, or were forty years ago, carried to the churchyard on 
handspokes by the reluiont of the deceased. The same idea has occurred 
to Mr. H. W. Jukes, whose carriage for walking fnnends is shown in^.3S. ' la 



St^h!;„'^'^;!''.r" ■"'"^'^ '" f"*"' fo' t-o l«™"" to draw by, there 

^^^ SToSd Xn'KC v^ ¥r?'^b" Sr ''Tr. z 

"Wde with a hmge to let down wh^n the coffi ''^'•J^Tl'"' handles should be 
country they maTbe altogether omitted ^^ '" "^"^ token out ; imd lu a level 
«««- Tlii dimension, of the CTo^ ,1,^^ f'^'" ""O";^'"*. >•« <"« »»« 
2 ft- 6 in. ioBide measure ; the heS7f^ *'lt "^^"''^ "hould be about 7 h. by 
6 •mm the bottom to the roof may be 4tt, 



INNOVATIONS BUGOESTED. 51 

and from the roof to the ground 6 ft. In a funeral with this machine, no hired 
men are necessary ; the man who precedes the procession should be one of 
the mourner^ or the joiner, who made the coffin, and the labour of drawing 
should be shared by the whole in turns. Persons who have not attended a 
walking funeral are nojt likely to be aware, not only of the fatigue to the 
bearers and attendants, but of the very disagreeable effects, more especially to 
the man at the head, whose head and shoulders are under the pall, of the 
smell, and sometimes the moisture, proceeding from the coffin. Could Mr. 
Jukes's truck-hearse; therefore, be generally introduced, not only in towns, but 
in country parishes, it would be a great blessing to the poor. The expense of 
funerals to the poor mieht be still &rther diminished by the use of the hand- 
bier, a figure of which will hereafter be given, as practised formerly in 
Scotland, and as it still is in various parts of the Continent, more par- 
ticularly in Poland. In the latter country the body is put in a coffin of 
coarse boards, in which it is carried to the church, placed on a bier, and a 
bottomless coffin of a superior description placed over it. The service being 
read, two of the mourners carry the bier to the side of the grave, when, two 
cords being introduced under the coffin, the whole is lowered to the bottom 
of the grave, while the case is drawn up by two back cords which are at- 
tached to its top.* These innovations will probably be resisted at first, 
because, among otner things, they would render unnecessary some of the under- 
taker's menf; but, as mankind cease to become slaves of custom, various 



* We saw a funeral performed in this way in the neighbourhood of War- 
saw, in June, 1813. The body was not buried in the churchyard, but in the 
margin of a wheat field, the son of the deceased not being able, as we were 
informed, to pay the church3rard fees. In Rome, and some other cities of 
Italy, the body is placed in a stone sarcophagus, while the funeral ceremonies 
are performed ; after which it is deposited, sometimes only for a day or two, 
and in the cases of people of greater rank for some weeks, in a vault or cata^ 
comb : it is then taken out and buried in the free soil. 

-|* People are not generally aware that the origin and type of the array of 
funerals commonly made by undertakers is strictly the neraldic array of 
a baronial funeral, or the funeral of persons entitled to coat armour, all of 
which were attended by heralds ; the two men who stand at the doors being 
supposed to be the two porters of the castle, with their staves in black ; the 
man who heads the procession, wearing a scarf, being a representative of a 
herald at arms ; the man who carries a plume of feathers on his head being 
an esquire, who bears the tabard of arms, including the shield, sword, helmet, 
gauntlet, and casque, with its plume of feathers ; the pall-bearers, with batons, 
being representatives of knights-companions at arms ; the men walking with 
wands being supposed to represent gentlemen ushers, with their wands. 

The cost of the men who bear staves covered with black, and who re* 
present the two porters of the castle, varies from 18«. to 30s,; and the man 
who heads the procession, representing the herald at arms, costs fi*om 21, 1 1^. 6d> 
to 5L 5t,, and so on. In general the poorest oerson does not fool away less 
than 31. 3s. for attendants of this kind. (E.CS^ In the case of truck-hearses 
and hand-biers, all these expenses might be spared, by the mourners acting in 
succession as the leader or herald ; or dispensing with the leader altogether, 
as is generally the case in Scotland. At the funerals of persons of rank,, 
heralds and hired mourners have in every age attended, and formed an array 
of pomp and simulated grief ; but the practice seems inconsistent with real 
sorrow, and should therefore be rejected by people of common sense. '* If, 
says a correspondent, ** the poor were wbe, their funerals would be as simple 
as possible : a plain coffin, borne by near male relations, and followed by the 
family and friends of the deceased in decent mourning, but without any of 
the undertaker's trappings on their persons, would be sufficient. The poor 
like funeral pomp^ because the rich like it ; forgetting that during life the con- 

E 2 



52 ON LAYING OUT CEMETEBltS. 

innovations of this kind will be adopted, which at present witt be rejected as 
absurd ; but which it is nevertheless desirable to suggest, with a view to in- 
duce men to examine into the possibility of departing from thf beaten track. 
The thick crust of prejudice must be broken up before it can be dispersed ; 
and the debacle must precede the clearing of the river. 



V. Design for a Ceuetbry of moderate Extent, on level Ground, 

EXEMPLIFIED IN ONE NOW BEING FORMED AT CAMBRIDGE. 

We shall here cop^ the Report which we made to the Directors, having 
obtained their permission for that purpose, omitting some details which have 



^ition of the dead was entirely different, and that there ought to be a consist- 
ency in every thing belonging to the various orders of society. The cause of 
the mistake which the poor make is this : that, by so uncalled for an expense, 
they think they show tneir greater respect for the dead, as if a dead father 
or mother (unless he or she were wrapt up in selfishness) would deprive their 
children of necessaries or comforts to gratify an imaginary and false pride." — 

The following case shows that where there is a genuine respect for the 
feelings and wishes of the dead, it soars high over all the ordinary pomp of 
funerals. It also shows how very careful persons ought to be on their death- 
bed, not to utter wishes that may give much pain and inconvenience to 
their relations. What considerate person would have expressed the wish 
which led to the following instance of 

Extraordinary Retolution and Perseverance. — We have now to record 
a feat of extraordinary perseverance, so rare indeed, that we much doubt 
whether its parallel can be found. On the 19th of November last, a person 
of the name of Thomas Wrassel, aged sixty-three, died at Wisbeach, m the 
county of Cambridge, and previouslv to his demise he expressed a wish to his 
only sister, who resided with him, that his remmns should be interred in the 
churchyard at Clarborough, near Retford, at which place he had formeriy 
lived, and where his mother and some of his family had been interred. With 
astonishing resolution the sister resolved on fulfilling his last injunctions, and 
set forth with the remains of her brother in a donkey cart. The distance be- 
tween Wisbeach and Clarborough is ninety-seven miles. During the journey the 
coffin, which projected from behind the cart, was covered wim a ragged 
coverlet, upon which the wretched sister sat. At length, after being eleven 
days on the road, she and the coffin reached Garborough on the 2d 6i 
December, and the body lay as it had travelled in the cart, in an outhouse of 
one of the village inns until Sunday December 4., when the last rites of the 
church were performed over it by tne Rev. W. R. Sharpe, curate : and, after 
its long transit, it was committed to its last earthly resting-place. The woman 
herself was not attired in decent mourning, but readily paid the funeral ex*- 
penses, and expressed her determination to return to Wisbeach by the eon« 
veyance in which she had come, in order to dispose of some little property 
there, preparatory to residing at Clarborough ; so that she may be sure of 
laying her bones beside his bones, and that the kindred dust of the family may 
commingle together, until the trump of the archangel shall summon them to 
meet the Lord in the air. The woman is sixty years of age, and the remains 
of her brother were only placed in a single coffin, although he had been dead 
for the long period of fifleen days ere the earth received back its own, 
(^Nottingham Journal, as quoted in the Times, Dec. 24. 1842.) 



1 



SMALL CEMETEKY ON LEVEL GKOUND. 53 

abready been given in Divisions II. and III. as belonging to the subject of 
cemeteries generally. 

Report wi the Design for a Cefnetertf proposed to he formed at Cambridge : 
made, by Order of the Directors, by J. C. Loudon. 

[Referring to Plans and Sections, Nos. 1. to 15.] 

The Ground purchased by the Cambridge Cemetery Company was, by the 
desire of the directors, inspected by us on Nov. 8. 1842. it lies in an open 
airy situation, in the neighbourhood of the town. The extent is 3J acres, 
and the tenure freehold. The surface is flat, with a gentle inclination to one 
end« from which there is a tolerably good drainage, by means of a public 
drain along the marcin of the New Huntingdon Road, to the river. The soil 
is a compact blue clay ; its present state is in broad high ridges, which have 
recently borne com crops, and the soil is therefore favourable for vegetation 
to the depth of 8 or 9 inches. The ground is enclosed on three sides by a 
recently planted thorn hedge, and the fourth, or north, side is open to a field 
of similar surface and soil. 

The Object of the Cemetery Company is to form a cemetery chiefly for the 
middle class of society, the total expense of which, including the purchase of 
the land, shall not exceed 2000/. ; that being the sum raised by the Company 
in 200 shares of 10/. each. The sum paid for the land beipg 400/., there 
remain 1600/. for building and arranging the ground. 

The duties of the reporter, therefore, are to show the directors, by plans, 
specifications, and estimates, bow the ground may be arranged, and the ne- 
cessary buildings erected, for the sum of 1600/. ; to suggest rules and regu- 
lations for the use and management of the cemetery ; to point out the duties 
of the curator ; and to offer any other suggestions to the directors that may 
occur to him. 

The Principles which have been borne in mind by the reporter, in comply- 
ing with the desire of the directors, are as follows : 

That, to prevent all risk of desecration or indecency, the arrangements be 
such as that no part of a cofEn, or of its contents, can ever be again exposed 
af^er interment, and, in particular, that no human bone can ever be disturbed. 
That, the cemetery being intended for all sects and parties indiscriminately, 
consecration by any one party would be improper. That a lodge for the 
curator, and a shed and yard adjoining and connected with it, for his imple- 
ments, planks, barrows, &c., are essential. That a chapel, for all who may 
choose to make use of it, is also essential.. That the frontage, and a portion 
of the ground along the Histon Road, be not included in the plan in the first 
instance, in case the cemetery should not succeed ; but that ttie general plan 
be so contrived that the frontage may be added afterwards, without deranging 
the cemetery part of the original design. That, the general outline of the 
ground being rectilinear, and the surface nearly level, the interior walks, 
borders, and beds, should be chiefly rectilinear and level also, as well for the 
sake of harmony of forms and lines, as for economy of space. That, in order 
to throw the whole into an agreeable shape, and form a reserve ground 
[e, in the plan fig. 33. p. 56.] for soil, bricks, and other materials produced 
or required in digging graves, building vaults, &c., the walk and hedge at one 
end should be formed within the outer fence. That, as moisture in a 
moderate degree contributes to the decomposition of animal matter, while in 
excess, in a strong clayey soil, it changes muscular fibre into adipocere, and 
also because there is a prejudice against burying in a very wet soil, it is 
desirable that the ground be drained; but that, as there is not a sufficient 
outlet for deep drainage so as to carry off the water from the bottom of 
brick graves or vaults, it is desirable that the surface of the ground should be 
so arranged as to carry off as much as possible of the rain water falling on it. 
That, to contribute to the dryness of the surface, and also because it has been 
ascertained that the gases from decaying bodies wiil rise to the surface from 

E 3 



54 ON LAYING OUT CEMETERIES. 

a very great depth, no trees (except such as may be hereafter introduced for 
ornamenting particular graves) should be planted in the interior of the cemetery, 
but only along the borders of the main walks and of the terrace walk, in 
order to allow the full effect of the sun and wind to dry the ground, and 
renew the air. That the trees proposed to be planted should occupy as little 
space as possible ; and, hence, should consist of kinds which have narrow 
conical shapes like the cypress, a form connected with places of interment by 
Qlflssical and even popular association. That these trees should be all ev^i^r- 
greens, as being from their unchangeable aspect more solemn than deciduous 
trees ; and that they should be of dark shades <^ green, as being more solemn 
than light shades of that colour. That no flowers, flowering shrubs, or 
deciduous trees, be planted in the cemetery by the Company, but only in 
the reserve gardens, for sale to such persons as may wish to plant them over 
graves. That, in order to combine security and a solemn effect with economy, 
the surrounding fence be a holly hedge rather than a stone or brick wall ; but 
that, for immediate privacy and security, the whole be surrounded with a park 
paling outside the holly hedge, to be retained there till the he<^ has over- 
topped the paling. That the graves should be so arranged that funerals may 
be commodiously performed, or any grave visited, without treading on graves 
already occupied. That no catacombs be constructed above the surface of 
the jpround, because the reporter considers every mode of burial, except in 
the free soil, a«^ unpleasant m idea; and as more or less dangerous to the 
living from the emuvia which unavoidably proceeds from the coffins, even 
when bricked up, as that operation is ordinarily performed; and, finally, be- 
cause this mode of burial is no security against the disturbance of the coffins 
at some future time. 

Nevertheless, to meet the opinions and wishes of those who still prefer burying 
in vaults and underground catacombs* am[de space should be provided for them, 
and also for brick graves ; while those who desire to plant flowers or flowering 
shrubs on the graves of their friends should have full permission to do so ; or, 
if the directors should desire to plant flowers and shrubs for the general or- 
nament of the cemetery, some may be planted in beds in the situation where 
graves are to be made, and of the sliape of these graves {see^x. 3. to lO^ in 
p. 22. and p. 23.) ; on the principle that the taste of individuals, and even, to a 
certain extent, of public bodies, ought to be free. 

The general Arrangement of the plan, as founded on these principles, is as 
follows. 

The BtiUdingt, — The design, estimate, and working plans of the curator's 
lodge, the chapel, and the responsibility that the cost of execution shall not 
exceed the estimate, are committed to E. B. Lamb, Esq., architect, whose 
^timate amounts to 1000/., leaving 600/. for the arrangement of the grounds. 

The Grounds* — The proposed general arrangement of the grounds is 
shown in the plan No. 1. [Jig, 33.], with the signature of the reporter, and is 
as follows. 

The entire area of 3^ acres is shown enclosed by a holly hedge, planted on 
the top of a broad bank of soil. The main entrance is proposed to be made 
at the west end, opening into the Histon Eoad ; and a secondary entrance 
will be required from the New Huntingdon Road, at the south-east comer, 
partly for hearses, but chiefly for carting in and carting out materials. 

On each side of the main entrance, a piece of ground, g g, is reserved, 
with a view to the following objects. As the curator of the cemetery cannot 
be supposed to have full employment for two or three years after the cemetery 
is opened, he may rent these two pieces of ground, and cultivate them as 
gardens, which, if partly devoted to flowers for sale, might, it is thought, prove 
an attraction to the cemetery ; while the cemetery in its turn would form a 
motive to walk from town to the gardens, and ultimately lead to an attach- 
ment to the cemetery as a place of interment. Or, should the cemetery not 
be so generally adopted by the public as it is hoped it will be, these pieces of 
ground, being valuable on account of their frontage, may be let off for build- 



SMALL CEMETERY ON LEVEL GKOUND. 55 

ing on ; or, ishouLd the cemetery be prosperous, and more room required, the 
spaces alluded to may be added to it. 

The chapel is proposed to be placed in the centre of the ground, a« most 
cpnvenient. The entrance being at the end c, a sufficient area is formed in 
front of that end to admit of turning a hearse and four horses, which may 
either return by the main entrance a, or go out by the secondary entrance 
at D. 

A piece of ground is reserved at e for laying down any superfluous earth 
which may occur in the course of digging the graves, and more especially in 
forming brick |rave8, vaults, or catacombs. Here also bricks and other 
materials used m forming graves, vaults, or catacombs, may be deposited ; 
and, some years hence, when the cemetery is in ftill demand, either in this 
piece of ground or near the Huntingdon Koad Lodg^ at w, a shed may be 
formed, in order that the earth-box (described in p. 34.J), with wheelbarrows, 
planks, casks of cement, lime, sand, &c^ may be kept under cover, and also 
as a place for a mason or bricklay^ to work in. This shed is placed close to 
the side of the approach road, in order that materials n»y be the more readily 
laid down or taken up without the necessity of leading the cart off the road. 
F is a piece of ground, which may be let as a garden to the cottage or lodge 
at D ; and, indeed, till the cemetery is in full operation, the reserve ground 
E may also, in great part, be let for cultivation for a year or two. It is 
thou^t that the cottage at d, and the ground f attached to it, and also the 
shed w, afl^ the cemetery is once established, might be advantageously let 
to a statuary mas<»i. The shed w is shown with a chimney in each gable, 
in case it should afterwards be thought advisable to turn it mto a labourer's 
cotti^. 

In laying out the interior of the cemetery, the first object was to obtain 
a carriage-road down the centre ; not only for general purposes, such as cart- 
age for materials for building tombs, brick graves, &c., but to allow of the 
hearse approaching the graves as near as possible. 

The next object was to form borders, u u, &c., to the main road from 
west to east, and to the cross roads from south to north. These borders 
ate 18 ft. wide, planted with trees at regular distances ; and they admit of 
bemg divided into spaces for letting, as permanent places of interment for 
families who are wilhng to pay more than for permanent graves in the in- 
terior* Betwe^i every two trees there may be one burial-place, rendered 
ornamental by some description of tomb, monument, or enclosure. 

Hie interior is divided into beds 18 fl. in width, with paths between them 
4 ft. in width ; and a space 2 ft. in width, and raised about 3 in., is shown in 
the middle of each bed, on which space all the head-stones are proposed to 
be placed on a foundation of brickwork or masonry carried up from the 
bottom of the grave, in order that these head-stones, or whatever description 
of moQUffieBt or memorial may be placed at the bead of a grave, shall always 
stand firm and independent of that grave. (See p. 28.) The paths between 
the beds are connected with a common path of 5 ft. in width, which sur- 
rouads the beds, and communicates at intervals T^th the main or central 
RMui ; so that a funeral may be performed in any part of the grounds, or a 
gnve In any part of the grounds visited, without once deviating from these 
padis, or treading on any graves. 

Tlie surface of the ground being naturally flat, €md rery nearly on a level, 
thene-wiH be no difficulty in carrying off the surface water to the point d, 
though there is no outlet for deep drains. It therefore becomes necessary to 
render the surface drainage as perfect as possible, and for this purpose the 
interior of the compartments is raised in (he middle as shown m the cross 
section No. 6. [not given], in which a is a level line, and b the line of the 
ground ; in consequence of which the water will drain to each side to the 
gjteen paths under which tile drains will be formed, as indicated by the dotted 
blue lines r r, &c. The bottom of these drains will not be more than 18 in. 
under the surface, and they will be covered entirely with small stones or 

E 4 



56 ON LAYING OUT CEMETERIES. 

^ravd, for the purpose of oiore immediately and cflECtaally abaortni^ the 

woterwhich fells on ilieaiir- 

faceorihebeds. In order 

to caiTT off the water from 

the main roBd,and also frtHU 

the walk on the terrace, 

tuiall brandi dmos are to 

be fonned, aa indicated ia 

the blue dotted lines in the 

Trees are shown planted 
^ng the walks at r^ular 
distances. Those along the 
central road are supposed 
to' be chieft; Taurian pines 
(Knus lalirica), because 
tiiat spedes has a 6tak and 
solemn air, readily clothes 
itself with branches from 
the ground upwards, and 
its branches admit of "cut- 
ting in " to any extent, so 
as to form the tree into as 
narrow a cone as may be 
desirable. Add to these 
advantages, that this is one 
of the most rapid-growing 
of pines. The trees marked 
s s, &C., are supposed to 
be cedars of Lebanon ; and 
the four marked tt, &c , 
deodar cedars, llie trees 
y V, ftc, bordering the 
terrace walk, are proposed 
to be Irish yews, llie 
trees round the reserve 
ground. B and p, are to be 
either Taurian or black Aus- 
trian pines (/'. austriaca) ; 
the latter a tree that has 
most of the properties of 
the Taurian pine, with the 
advantage of being some- 
what cheaper to purchase. 

At any future period, 
should there be a demand 
for catacombs, a range of 
these can be substituted for 
the curvilinear walk at the 



1 



lity, by r_ 
moving the holly hedge, and 
by forming a handsome 
arcade there, with vaults 
behind and underneath, as 
in the Munich and EenMit 
Green Cemeteries. 

DelaiU. — The following 
is a summary of the details 
of the ground plan. No. I, 
[_fig. 33.: owing to the Ftg. M. (iroHntl l-lan <ff Ikr CamhriUge Cnrettry. 



SMALL CEMETERY ON LEVEL GROUND. 87 

reduced scale of this plan, several of the letters of reference have been of 
necessity omitted.] 

A, Principal entrance lodge and gates, opening into the Histon Road. 

B, Carriage road. 

c. Chapel, standing on a platform, and ascended by a flight of steps. 

D, Entrance from Sie New Huntingdon Road. 

By Reserve ground for spare earth, for bricks, stones^ mortar, and various 
articles required in digsing graves, building brick mves, vaults, &c. 

F, Garden to the New Huntingdon Road Lodge. This lodge not being 
essential, no plan or estimate of it is given. It is thought that it might let 
sufficiently well as a cottage, to render it worth building on that account. 

G G, Reserve ground fronting the Histon Road, which may be used as 
garden ground, f^ded to the cemetery, or let for building on, as may^ ulti- 
mately be found most desirable. 

H H, &c,y Terrace walk surrounding the cemetery, and 3 ft. above the 
general level. 

I I, &C., Holly hedges, forming the outer boundary, and also the separa- 
tion fences between the cemetery and the reserve grounds. 

K K, &C., Seats or benches, for the use of persons walking round the 
cemetery. 

L L, &c.. Borders for graves with monuments, or o^erwise rendered 
ornamental. 

M M, &c., Beds where the graves may either be plain or turf graves^ 
graves with head*stones, or be rendered otherwise ornamental at pleasure. 

N N, &c.. Space along the centre of these beds, on whidi alone head* 
stones are to be placed on foundations of brickwork or masonry. Brkk 
graves or catacombs may have the monuments, ledger-stones, or whatever i^ 
used as a covering or finish, resting on their side and end walls. 

o o, &c.. Single grass graves. 

p p, &c.. Brick graves occupying exactly the space of two single ones. 

a Q, &c., Vaults descended to by stairs occupying exactly the space of 
four single graves. 

R R, &C., Tite drains for carrying off surface water, all terminating in the 
public drain in the New Huntingdon Road. 

s s, &c.. Cedars of Lebanon. 

T T, &c.. Deodar cedars. 

V V, &c.. Lines of Taurian pines. 

V V, &c.. Lines of Irish yews. 

w, Workshed for masons, and repository for planks, wheelbarrows, earth- 
box, &c., not to be built till after the cemetery is in full operation. 

X X, Histon Road. 

Y, Y, Public drain along the New Huntingdon Road. 

z. Archway to be formed in the holly he^e as it grows ; or, if the funds 
permit, an architectural archway may be here formed at the time the hedge i$ 
planted. • 

No. 2. [omitted] is an elevation of that side of the cemetery which lies 
along the Histon Road. 

No. 3. [omitted] is a cross section on the line cc dd, showing a rise 
of one foot in the centre of the compartment at a, in order to throw the water 
to the sides atbh. 

No. 4. [omitted] is a longitudinal section on the line aa bb. 

No. 5. [omitted]. Elevation of the south side of the cemetery fence, in* 
eluding the entrance from the New Huntingdon Road. 

No. 6. [omitted] is a section across the lodge and the chapel in the dir 
rection of a b c z. 

No. 7. [omitted] is a section along the middle road, to show the fall of 
the ground from west to east, and the consequent power of surface drainage. 

No.8. [omitted]. A similar section to No. 6., but on a scale four times larger. 

No. 9. Section across the terrace on the line ii kk, to the same scale 
as Nos. 7. and 8. 



OK LATINO OCT CBHSTER1E8. 



[fe.3+.l St 
iivel walk i b. 



Stetion aa^aa the terrace on the lane > 



the double beds of graves. 



o rows of gnvei ; and «^ the gnM w 





FI«.M 

No. 1 1. \J^. S5.] SeetioD Bcraaa tbe hedge and bank fonniag the liounilHry 
aloiu the fiUaton Road, on the lioe c g b b. 

No. IS. [j%. 17. in p. 30.] A plan blowing a vault, 
a brick grave, a common grave, and the mode of num- 
bering tbe erarea. 

No. IS.[)^.1Z. kip.m.] Section through a brick 
or (tone vault and a common grave. 

N«. 14. tSeey^. 13. in p. 87.] Section tbrougfa a 
toick or stone grave and a common grave. 

No. 15. [fig. 40. in p. 60.] Isoraetrical view of the 
whole. [Taough this view is on a very small scale, it 
is sufficient to indicate the style of the buildings, and 
die character of the trees : the two gardens in (ront are " 
also shown, the reserve ground partly turned into a ^ y^^^ „, 
garden, the Huntingdon entrance lodge, and the mason's ihtBoia. 
shed.] »i«™ »«"■ 

Designs for the main entrance lodge and chapel were given in by Mr. Lamli, 
both in the Gothic and Italian styles. The directors chose those in [he former 
style, as will appear frojn a glance at the 
isometrical view ; but, as the designB in the J D 
Italian style have great merit, we have had 
them engraved, partly on this account, and 
partly because the elevations suit the same 
plans as those which have been adopted 

Fig. 36. is a ground {^an of the chapel, 
in which a is the porch ; b, four sittings , c, 
four sittings; i/, cofGn; e, twenty-four sit- 
ti^; /, twenty^onr Mttbgs, g, palptt, k, 
r^stry ; i, terrace. 

J%. 37» Elevation of tbe main entrance 
lodge and gates. The ground plan 
tuns a porch, a room to be used as an ofEce, 
living-rooui, kitchen, and back-kHehen, imn 
court, and shed for jraplements, &e. The 
floor above contains three bed-n 



Fig, 38. is a perspective view of the ele- 
vation, and fig, 39. a longitudinal section. 
[As atone is remarkably abundant at Csm- 
Wdge, and very easily worited, Mr. Lamb 
<)Bs designed all the buildings with a view to 




Hi Ptm i^au, CImfiL 



SMALL CBMBTEKY ON LEVEL OROUKD- 



Fig. ». fMriMix Lodge «• Ihi Italiia Slglt. daigntafar Oe Camtrii^f Ctmeiiry. 

their being executeJ in that material. The coins are of hewn atone; the 
columDa of stone hemi and rubbed ; ami the bod; of the wallx of nibble, ai 
indicated in fig. 38. The roof, in the Oothic designa, is steep, and will be 
covered by & pecuUar description of ornamental fltt tile, of which a figure 



it ItaUaa Stj/li, daigiitdJOr Ikr CanAri^ Cmt/tery. 



will be hereafter pivcn. In the I(ali«n design, the roof is flat, to admit of 
being covered with tiles, bedded either in Roman cement, or in the new 
cement of Mr. Austin; or covered with asphalie. The platform on which 
(he building stands wiU be surrounded by a kerb-stone, and the interior laid 
with asphdte.] 



Capacity of ihe Cemelei'y and the probable annual Esrpentet and Retvrja. 
— The number of spaces for graves in the double beds, each grave occupying 
a space of 8 ft. by 3 ft., exceeds 900; and the number of border graves 
exceeds 200. Under the surrounding terrace 200 more graves may be ob- 
tained, and from 800 to 1000 under the front reserved gardens, and the roads, 
walks, and paths ; but, as it is not proposed to open the ground under the 



ON LAriNO OCT- CEMETERIES. 



terrace, or in the rescTred 
gardens, till the beds and 
Border, are nearly fall, 
nor to bury in the path* and 
roads, till the cemetery a 
■bout tobe dosed ai itucnfbr 
ever, we shall take die num- 
ber of spaces for mves im- 
mediately Bvailable as 12O0, 
In order that these may re- 
turn a suitable interest for 
the money expended, it is 
evident that more than one 
interment must be made in 
each grave, whether the 
grave be a private or l^ily 
snve, or a common grave. 
Evcsy common grave we 
shall luppose to be 8* ft. 
deep, wnich will give four 
interments, allowing 6 ft: of 
soil over each. The family 
graved may either be made 
in the free soil, or they may 
be brick graves or vaulls, 
and they mav be made of 
any depth tne proprietors 
niay choose. The family 
graves made in the free soil 
we shall suppose to be of 
the same depth and ciq>a- 
citj aa the common graves; 
and the brick gnives may 
either be of the same depth 
and capacity, or, by embed- 
ding the coffins in ccmeni, 
or hermetically sealing each 
with a flag-stone, the capa- 
city of each grave may be 
at least doubled. 

Hence the 1200 graves 
may give at least 4600, or 
- say SOOO, interments ; but, 
as the space allowed for 
each grave along the bor- 
ders is more than double 
that allowed in the interior 
beds, 1000 interments at 
I^t may be added. Whe- 
ther or not 5000 or 6000 
interments will afford a suf- 
ficient return for the cani- 
tal expended, and the ne- 
M»»ary annual expense, will 
depend on the sum ch^d 
for each interment, and The 
number of mtermenta made 
in a year, " 

rtg. M. iMiKilneal fbu tf the CambrUt' CeaetriTi 



[ 



SHALL CEMETEBT ON LEYEL GBOUND. 61 

. The Interest of the Money expended* allowing 1 per cent as a M s. d, 

sinking fund to return the principal, we sh^l estimate at • 120 
Salary of the Curator, and Annual Expenses chargeable to 

the Cemetery - - i. ' . . . ]80 

Sum which the Cemetery ought to produce annually j£300 . 

In order to show how this sum may be produced, we shall suppose that 
there are 200. interments made in a year^ and that the sum charged ror a single 
interment in a common grave is 1/. 10«. which is only 5#. per mterment more 
than is chained in the Tower Hamlets Cemetery, where from twelve to fifteen 
bodies are placed in one ^ve; and this wiU pive the sum required. 

Taking the number of interments which will be afibrded by the 1200 avail* 
able graves at 6000, that number, at the rate of 200 interments in a year, 
will be exhausted in thirty years. The remainder of the ground will afiR>r4 
at least an equal number of*^ interments, which might extend the use of the 
cemetery to sixty years. 

To supply 200 deaths >per annum, reckoning the deaths at 2 per cent of 
the living, a population of 1iiO,000 is required, or about four fiflhs of the 
entire population of Cambridge. 

As therefore it would be unreasonable to suppose that so large a propor* 
tion of the people of Cambridge would bury m one cemetery, we are forced 
to the conclusion, either that the price for each interment must be increased^ 
or that the shareholders must be content with less interest than 6 per cent. 
Suppose we make the calculation at 3 per cent, that will reduce the annual 
charges to 240/., which will require only 160 interments at 30s. or 120 at 40i. 
' Whatever sum is fixed on as the regular price of an interment in a common 
grave will eive the amount of the fee-simple of that grave ; and thus, ac* 
cording; to tne calculation which we have made of six interments to a grave^ 
the pnce of a family grave ought to be at least 61, ; except in the borders^ 
where, from being a place of distinction, it ought to be higner. This price is 
exclusive of every other expense, and also of a fee which will require to be 
paid every time an interment takes place. 

The price to be charged for a single interment in a common grave should 
be fixed on partlv from the market price for such interments in the best part 
of the churchyards of Cambridge, but chiefly from the great superiority of 
the principle on nvhich the cemetery is founded, viz. that no coffin, nor any 
part of its contents, when once interred, can ever by any possibility, humanly, 
speaking, be again exposed to view. 

If, on calculating on the capacity of this cemetery, we were to proceed on 
the supposition that the common graves might be opened for reinterments 
at the end of fourteen years, the result would be verv different. But on 
opening at the end of fdurteen years, or at any period whatever, it would be 
impossible to avoid exposing an immense number of human bones, which 
constitute one of the great nuisances in our present crowded churchyards. 

7%e MdSe of conducting the Cemetery is supposed to be as follows. 

The choice of a situation for a grave may be made in any part of the beds 
in the interior, or of the borders along the main walks ; but, till the cemetery 
is nearly full, it is not desirable that graves or vaults should be made under, 
the surrounding terrace walk. When they are made there, the 5-feet grass 
path which separates the terrace from the beds mav have one foot in width 
added to it from the terrace, and may be laid with gravel firora the terrace 
walk, which may be covered with grass taken from the 5-feet walk referred to. 
The use of the terrace being thus changed from a walk to a platform for 
graves, it will of course no longer be walked upon. 

As none of the coffins will ever be disturbed by the reopening of the graves, 
as in common burying-grounds, there is no objection to the use of leaden, 
zinc, or iron coffins. 



62 ON LAYING OUT CEM£T£BI£8. 

The fatenneiits wauy be "claased as those made in common or public earth 
graves, in private earth gravea, in brick graves, in vaults having cataeombs, 
and in border graves. 

Every grave in the cemetery is supposed to be numbered, and thia may be 
effected in the following manner. 

1. The Borden may be considered as divided into spaces by die trees, and 
these spaces nmy be numbered in regular series, beginning with the right-hand 
border on entenng the cemetery from the main lodge, and tenniiiating with 
the last space on the left-hand border. A number-stone may be put in in 
every tentn or twentieth bed or space. 

2. The Bedi in the Interior. Beginning at one end (say with the first bed 
on the right hand on entering by the principal lodge), a stone with a smooth 
end, 6 or 8 inches by 2 ft., and at least 2 ft. in depth, is to be inserted in the 
ground at each end of the middle space of the beds, as at a and b in the 
plan No. 13. [Jig, 17. in p. 30.]. On the stone a is to be cut the first 
number of the bed, i. ;. and the last number, viz. l. : and on the stone b the 
last number of the one side, xxv., or one half of the graves in the bed ; and 
the commencing number of the second side, xxvi. Thus, in everv double 
bed throughout the cemetery, the stone at the north end will exnibit the 
number of the first and the last grave on that bed, and the stone at the oppo* 
site end the number of the last grave on one side^ and of the first grave on 
the other. Should any two adjoining spaces adapted for earth graves be 
occupied as a brick grave, or any four spaces be required as a vault, in these 
cases the brick grave would be entered in the cemetery books under the 
head of two numbers, and the vault under the head of four numbers. 

. It is not necessary to begin by putting number-stones to all the beds ; but 
when choice is made of a bed at a distance from one that has already been 
numbered, a calculation must be made of the numbers that would occupy 
the intervening beds, and the two number-stones placed accordingly at tne 
ends of the bed in which the interment is to be made. 

Every brick grave or vault must, therefore, necessarily be a multiple of a 
common grave, otherwise the numeration will be deranged. 

When a bed is to be spoken of as a whole, it can be designated by the first 
or lowest number in the bed. Thus, supposing the beds to contain fifty graves 
each, we should have beds No. 1, 51, 101, 151, 201, and so on : or, in ad^ 
dition to the numbers, a letter may be placed on each stone, and we should, 
therefore, have beds a, b, c, &c. ; and, after a single alphabet was exhausted, 

AA, BB, &c. 

3. The Grravet or Vault* under the Terrace will require to be similarly re« 
corded to the border graves, a number being allowed for every space between 
the trees ; or two numbers, if that should be thought necessary. 

4. When the Reserve Spaces, 6 g [in^g.33.], are added to the cemetery, 
the separation hedge will be removed ; and the border, terrace, and beds 
extended ; and, hence, the graves there will be recorded accorcUng to the modes 
already mentioned. 

The Earth GrawM, or graves of the simplest kind, are to be mtfUe within a 
space 8 ft. by 3 ft. ; which, allowing a margin of 3 in. at the sides, and I ft. 
at the end next the i^feet path, will give 7 ft. by 2 ft« 6 in., which is 6 in < 
longer than is allowed in the Kensal Green Cemetery, besides allowing 
a space of 1 ft. Iw 3 ft. for a foot-stone or number, if the purchaser of the 
grave should think either of these necessary. For a single interment it must 
be dug at least 6 ft. in depth ; but, if it is intended to make two or more 
interments in it, it must be dug 6 ft. deeper for each additional interment j 
and, as the limit to depth need not be settled, any number of interments 
may be made in a common grave that the proprietors of the cemetery may fix 
on, or in a family grave that its owner may determine. 

In order that the sides of the earth graves mi^^ remain firm, and not be 
pressed in by the loose earth of an adjoining grave, they should chiefly be 
formed alternately with firm ground which has not been buried in, or moved 



SMAI^L C£M£T£BT ON I^SY£]> 6BOUND. 63 

within six or seven years, or next to briek graves or vaults; but^ shoiikl 
it become necessary to open one grave adjoining another which has been 
recently made or opened, recourse can always \^ had to planks or grave- 
boards [Jigt. 19. and 20.} ; which, indeed, mav be considered abscMutely 
necessary as safeguards in the case of ail graves clug above 6 ft. deep adjoining 
ground which has been moved. 

Every reopening of a family ^ve for another interment should be charged 
according to the depth when it is an earth grave ; say for a depth of 6 ft. 3i^ 
18 ft. Of., and so on ; and, when it is a bri^ grave or vault, aceording to the 
expense of removing the ledger or covering stone^ &c. 

In order to keep gravestones, monuments, and flowers planted over 
graves in order, the fee-simple of the estknated annual expense of doing so 
should be paid down by the proprietor of the grave, at the time of putting up 
the monument, or panting the plants [on the principle laid down in p» 30.]. 

Brick Graves, These require to have side walls of from 9 in. to 18 in. in 
width, according to their depth; and these walls should be curved, so as to 
resist the later^ pressure or the soil, as shown in plan No. 11. [Jig, 17. in 
p. 30.] Brick graves, when of great depth, require to occupy the space of 
two earth graves, and hence the charges for them ought to be double that 
for earth graves, exclusive of the expense of building; but when two brick 
graves are built close together, each need not occupy more than an earth 
grave, because the party wall will save 14 in. in width, thus :-^ 

ft. in. 

Width of space allowed for two graves - - - - 8 

Deduct three walls, each 14 in. thick - - - - 3 6 

l«eavittg a clear space of 2 ft. 3 in. in width for each grave 4 6 

Length of the ground, including half the width of the space on which 

the gravestones are to be placed - - * - 9 

Deduct two 14-inch walls - - - - - 2 4 

Leaving the clear length of the grave - • - 6 8 

The ordinary dimensions of the coffins which are always kept ready made 
by undertakers are 6 ft. long by 20 in. wide, and 16 in. deep ; the largest size 
is 7 ft. by 2 ft. 4 in., but coffins of this size are very seldom required. 

If the walls were built in cement, then 9 in. in thickness would in many 
cases be sufficient ; and this would add 10 in. to the length and 10 in. to the 
width of the clear space, leaving it 7 ft. 6 in. by 3 ft. 1 in.; which would afford 
ample room for any cofi&n whatever. 

The ordinary mode of burying in brick graves is to let down the coffins 
one over another, without covering them with earth, but merely laying a flat 
stone or ledger over the mouth of the grave a few inches above the level of 
the ground's surface. In some cases a flag-stone, resting on ledges projecting 
from the side walls of the grave, is placed over each coffin as it is aeposited ; 
and when each flag-stone is securely cemented, so as effectually to prevent the 
escape of gas [see p. 37.], a greater number of interments ma^ be made in one 
grave by this mooe than by any other, and at the same tune with perfect 
safety to the living. 

The Vaults may be constructed in the usual manner, as shown in the 
general plan, No. 1. [^. 33. in p. 56.] at Q, Q, and in the enlarged plan 
No. 12. Ifig. 17. in p. 30.], and section No. 13. [J^. 12. in p. 26.]. A vault 
of 12 ft. in depth, and 2 coffins in width, will contain 12 coffins. 

The Books required Jbr conducting this Cemetery are chiefly: 1. An order 
book ; 2. A register or record of interments ; and 3. A ledger of graves, an 
account being opened for each grave, as in the Kensal Green Cemetery, The 
other books required do not differ from those in common use. Forms of the 
order-book, register, and ledger will readily be obtained by applying to any 



64 ON LAYING OUT CEHETEBIE& 

of the London Cemetm Companies, or their stationers. [The essential 
forms, and the names of the stationers, have been gjven in p. 43.] 

Specification of Work to be done on the Ground^ mekuUng the yomuUiott of the 

Roads, Walks, Drains, /jrc. 

Form the surrounding terrace and hedse banks, agreeably to aections 
Nos. 8, 9, 10, and 1), of the best of the surnice soil in the interior of the en- 
closure ; the slopes to be built with a grassy sur&ce, which will be obtained 
from the most grassy parts of the sur^M» soil ; and the whole to be rendered 
solid and compact, bv ramming with cast-iron rammers as the soil is laid down. 
Form the walk on the surface agreeably to the sections. 

Level and smooth the ground on each side of the terrace walk, in order to 
be sown afterwards with grass seeds, with the exception of a space 2 ft. in 
width, on which the holly hedge is to be planted. I^lant the hollies in April 
at 1 ft. apart, and mulch them with littery stable dung. 

Form the hedge banks as shown in the section No. 11., the sides to be of 
grassy sods, and the whole firmly rammed ; the upper sur&ce being left quite 
level, smooth, and clear of grass and weeds, for the space of 2 ft. in width 
along the centre, on which is to be planted the holly hedge. Insert the plants 
at a foot apart, as above directed. 

In depositing the soil both in the terrace banks and the hedge banks, the 
greatest care must be taken to place nothing but good soil under the line on 
which the holly hedges are to be planted, in order by that good soil to pro- 
mote their growth as much as possible. 

Surround the whole of the outer holly hedge with a park paling«6 ft. high. 

The terrace and banks being completed, level the whole of the interior 
surface, so as to have one general slope from the point a in section No 7. 
to the point d in plan No. 1., the fall being supposed to be about 2 ft., as 
shown in the section. 

Form, at the same time, that part of the surface which is laid out in beds, 
as shown in plan No. 1. [fig. 33. in p. 56.], raised in the middle, and 
sloping towards the sides, as shown in the enlarged section No. 8. 

Form the carriage-road of broken stones below, and gravel above, raised 
S in. higher at the centre than at the sides, as shown in the section. 

Form the borders to the main roads with a concealed brick-edging next 
the walk, as shown in section at No. S,bb [see figs, 30. and 31. in p. 38.], and 
place amass of good soil where each tree is to be planted, raised in the centre 
1 ft. above the general level, and forming a flattened cone 6 ft. in diameter. As 
temporary plants, and for immediate effect, introduce one spruce fir 6 or 8 feet 
high, if such plants can be got, between every two pines, and between every 
two Irish yews ; the intention being that these spruce firs shall be removed as 
soon as the pines and ^ews attain the height of 6 ft. 

Form the interior mto beds 18ft. wide, with a space 2 ft. wide, and 3 in. 
higher than the rest of the surface, along the centre of each bed ; and form alleys 
between them 4 ft. in width, and a surrounding path 5 ft. wide, as shown in 
sections Nos. 8, 9, and 10. 

Form the tile drains and the branch drains, as shown by the blue dotted 
lines in plan No. 1., and also in the sections Nos. 8. and 9., at cc. 

Plant the pines, cedars, and yews, as shown in the plan No. 1., taking the 
greatest care to place nothing but good soil under and over the roots, and to 
unwind and stretch out the roots of all those that iiave grown in pots. 
Protect the cedars with circular constructions of wickerwork, and mulch 
the surface round all the trees, and along both sides of the hedge, with littery 
Btable dung. 

^ Sow the whole of the surface shown green in the plan No. I. with peren- 
nial rye«grass and white clover, at the rate of 1 bushel of rye-grass, and 1 lb. 
of white clover to the acre. 



■ vmMW 



SMALL CEMETERY ON LEVEL GROUND. 65 



• 

Estimate of Expense. 

2400 cubic yards of Terrace-baDk, at 6rf. - 
300 cubic yards of Hedge-bank, at 6(/.- ... 

480 lineal yards of Terrace-walk, 6 ft. wide, at 1*. - 
1761 square yards of Road, at 6(/. - , - - 

1813 feet of Park Paling, at 2*. - 

16,300 square yards of Surface, to be levelled and formed into 
Beds and Borders, at 2(/. - 
2900 feet of Tile-drain, at 6rf. per foot, including sink-stones 
or gratings, where necessary - . . - 

2120 Hollies, at \0s, per hundred .... 

94 i^nus taurica, in pots, at 1«. each ... 

20 Pinus austriaca, in pots, U. each ... 

14 Cedars of Lebanon, in pots, 2«. 6£?. each 
4 Deodar cedars, in pots, 5s, each ... 

76 Irish yews, at \s, 6d. each .... 

200 Spruce firs at 6£f. ..... 

Rye-grass and Clover seeds . . - - 

Planting the hollies and the above trees with the greatest 
possible care, including mulching with littery stable- 
dung - - - - . - -600 

Allow for a temporary Gate to the entrance from the 
New Huntingdon Road, for unforeseen expenses, and 
for superintendence - - . . -37 110 



£ s. 


d. 


60 





7 10 





24 





44 


Q 


181 6 





135 16 


8 


72 10 





10 12 





4 14 





1 





1 15 





1 





5 14 





5 





2 






if600 



Should it be desired to reduce the above estimate, the means are as 
follows : — 

£ t. d. 
Omit altogether the gravel walk on the terrace, and let it be a 

grass walk .. . . . . -24 00 

Form only one half of the surface into beds, leaving the other 

half to be formed by the curator at convenience ; deduct, say - 60 
Drain only one half instead of the whole ; deduct, say - - 50 

Instead of pines, cedars, and yews, plant Scotch pines instead 
of the Taurian pines, and spruce firs instead of the Irish yews, 
to be clipped into cones and pyramids, by which a saving will 
be made of- - . - - - -12 00 



£14,6 



Rules and RegtUations Jbr the Management of the Cemetery, ^^The general 
management being invested by the company in the directors, they have ap- 
pointed a secretary and a curator, and the latter shall appoint graves-men and 
body-bearers. 

Aity of the Secretary. — To keep the cemetery books, and communicate 
between the directors and the curator. To concoct with the directors a scale 
of prices for interments, as well as a set of rules and regulations, to be varied 
from time to time, as trial and convenience may justify. 
. Duties of the Curator. — To take his instructions firom the secretary. To 
receive the burial fees, but no perquisites. To devote the whole of his time, 
or only a certain portion of it, to the cemetery, as may be agreed on ; the re- 
mainder of the time, if any, to be employed in the plots of ground which he is 
supposed to rent from the company for a few years at first, &c., as before 
explained. 



\ 



OM LAYING OUT CEMETERIES. 



than 6 ft ; BDd that, wl 
coffin is placed in a grave whicb is filled in with earth, tt 
6 ft. between the coffina, unless the two coffins are depodt 
in which case the one may be placed on the other. 

To take special care tnat a protecting stone [before i 
placed in every grave filled in with earth, that is to be reoi 
distance (6 ft.) above the last-deposited coffin ; and to taJ 
grave with a protecting stone is reopened, the protecting 
out, and again repltu^ed at the proper distance, or takei 
the grave is to be finally cloiied. 

To attend in like manner to the interments made by 
nil the separate coffins, whether by intervening Sag-ston 
them in cement as before described. 

To keep the whole uf the grounds in the neatest posslbl 
the progress of the trees and hed)^ plants, and stake thei 
the wind, or water them when dry. To sec that all the 
&c., are kept in order, and laid up in their proper places. 

To pay the grares-men and body-bearers accordinjg to s 
fees, or by the day, as may be arranged after ascerliUDiDg i 
in the Cambridge churchyards. 

[The remainder is omitted, as being either too local to 
or so general as to be included in Divisions [I., 111., and ^ 



The engraving Sg.H. is an isometrical view of a cei 
be situated on hilly ground, the use of which is to sli 
surface may be thrown into beds and borders for graves 
principles as in a cemetery having a flat surlace. In th: 
supposed to be two chapels included in one building, a 
porticoes on opposite sides. The surface of the ground 
considerably from the entrance lodge to the chapel, ai 
chapel to the north-east on one side, and the south-wee 
the reader will trace with his eye the direction of the 
lodge at a, till it returns to b, he will find that a view of 
may be obtained from it, witiiout going over any part tw 
be desirable, on account of the view, to descend alone the 
the chapel, as well as ascend, the branch road c la lai 
after having entered at a, and returned by b, c might be 
proceeding as far as rf, the visitor might return by the ch 
where he first entered at a. 

It will be observed that there is a border for graves imi 
boundary wall, which a walk separates from another bort 
broad borders to all the carriage roads ; and the interior t 
formed by these borders is laid out in beds 18 ft. wide, 
paths 3 ft. in width, as in the design for the Cambridge C 

At the four principal aisles of the boundary wall ai 
each of which there is a shed for tools, planks, grave-boar 
sary implements and articles. 

On the outside of the entrance ^tes are shown one 
horae hearses arriving, and one of his one-horse hearses 
resemble a common mourning-coach, returning. At e 
shown a funeral with a truck-hearse ; and, at/, one with 

The great extent of the borders in this cemetery renders i 
for being planted as an arboretum. 



■,. « » "it M 



LONDON CEMETERIES AS GARDENS. 67 

• 

VII. The present State of the London Cemeteries, cojisidered 

CHiEFLV AS Cemetery Gardens. 

From the discussions in the preceding pages, the reader will have anti- 
cipated much of what is contained in the present article, in which, indeed, we 
shall chiefly recapitulate what has been stated before more in detail. Of the 
eight cemeteries which have been formed within the last ten or twelve years 
we shall not single out any one by name, but notice chiefly objections which 
apply more or less to all of them. 

We object to interments made in catacombs above ground, and to all inter- 
ments in catacombs, however situated, in which the cell is not hermetically 
sealed (instead of placing an open grating before it), the joints within being 
previously covered with a thick coating of cement. In the last-formed 
cemetery the catacombs are not yet built ; but, in all the others, so great an 
expense has been incurred in the catacomb department, that it must operate 
as a serious drawback to the profits of the shareholders. As far as we have 
been able to ascertain, interment in catacombs is on the decline, as well in the 
London cemeteries as throughout the country ; and in our opinion it would 
be well to tax it in such a manner as to do away with it altogether. 

The interments made in a single grave, whether common graves or family 
graves, are too numerous in proportion to their depth. The distance at 
which coffins are placed apart is seldom more than a foot, sometimes even 
the coffin is laid bare, the evils resulting from which are : 1st, that when 
an interval of two or three weeks or months elapses between the in- 
terments, the earth to be removed is so offensive as to reduce the grave- 
digger to drinking, and shock the bvstander by the smell of the earth 
brought up to the surface ; and 2d, that by placing so many bodies in one 
grave the gases of decomposition must, when the grave is filled,, unavoid- 
ably reach the surface and escape into the atmosphere. The remedy for 
both evils is to place and retain a layer of earth of 6 fit. in thickness over each 
coffin ; because we consider it as proved by the general experience of grave- 
diggers throughout Europe, that no evil results from the decomposition of a 
body with this thickness of soil over it. The manner in whicb the soil 
operates is this : having been recently moved and the parts separated, the in- 
terstices are necessarily filled with atmospheric air; and as the gases are 
generated in the coffin they expand, rise into the soil, and displace the at- 
mospheric air, or mix with it. In this way this poisonous gas, instead of 
rising into the air itself, only forces out of the soil a portion of atmospheric 
air equal in bulk to what was generated in the coffin. When the layer of 6 f):. 
of soil over the coffin is not next the surface, but perhaps many feet beneath 
it, the mephitic air may still be assumed as driven into the soil immediately 
above the coffin, so that in whatever position the layer of 6 ft. may be relatively 
to the ground's surface, it may always be assumed, for all practical purposes, 
to contain the greater part of the mephitic gases which escape from the 
coffin. A certain proportion of these gases will also escape laterally, at least 
in all soils through which water will filtrate freely, such as gravels and sands ; 
but scarcely any will pass laterally through /clays, and none through jthe sides 
of a brick grave, unless these are built chequered with openings, as has been 
recommended in p. 27. 

If the principle of having 6 ft. of soil over every coffin were adopted, the mode 
suggested in p. 6. and p. 37., of having movable covering stones to be inserted 
after every interment, as soon as 6 ft. of soil had been filled in and well 
rammed, would be found a useful guide to the grave-digger, who would stop 
whenever he came to the stone, and take it out and reserve it till after the in- 
terment was effected. 

All the inconvenience that would result to cemetery companies by com- 
pelling them to have 6 ft. of soil over every body would be merely that of 
excavating to a greater depth ; and, as we have said before (p. 37.), there can 
be no reason why graves snould not be as deep as wells. 

F 2 



68 ON LAYING OUT CEHETEBIES. 

In some or the London cemeteries the coffins in brick graves are placed 
one over another, nnd separated on\y b; two Iron bars, the ends of which art 
inserted in the aide walls, the apace between the last-inserted coffin and the 
ledger or covering stone at the aurTace of the ground being left open, and 
consequently the whole of the coffins in the grave comniumcating with itt 
atmosphere. It is evident in this case that all the gases of decompoaition 
will escape into the open apace, and, by their expansive power, force out pari 
of the mortar or cement under the covering stone; but, even if it should nol 
do thia, there must be great danger every time the covering stone is taken 
oS^ and more especially ds it is necesaary for a man to descend to the last- 
deposited coffin, in order to insert two bars over it to bear the coffin about to 
be depDaitetl. The remedy for this evil is to cover every coffin with a flag-stont 
or slate, resting on ledges projecting from the side walls, and rendered per- 
fectly airtight, by covering the joints with a coat of cement of several inchet 
in thickness ; or, in default of this mode, embedding and covering the coffin 
with cement in the manner already described in p. 38. Sy no other mode car 
so Qiany coffins be got into one grave, and with perfect safety (if the opera, 
lion of sealing up is eftectually performed) to the grave-digger and the public 

We object to the system oflaying out a cemetery in imaginary squares, fo] 
various reasons ; it does not allow of an obvious order and arrangement of the 
graves ; it does not admit of walking among them on a continuous path ; il 
affords a very unsBtisfacton' mode of registration, since it depends on th( 
accuracy of the mapping of the graves in the map book ; it renders it next tc 
impossible for the relations of the deceased to find out the grave without tht 
aid of some person connected with the cemetery, unless the ^ave has t 
monument ; it prevents an efficient system of grass paths from being formed 
and it totally prevents the establishment of a permanent system of surfkcf 
drainage by^ havins the drains under the paths. It will not be denied, wt 
think, that in all the London cemeteries there is an appearance of confusior 
in the placing of the graves and monuments ; there is no obvious principle oi 
order or arrangement -, no apparent reason, exc^t in the case of gravei 
placed along the margins of the walks, why monuments should be situatec 
where they are, rather than any where else ; the greater part of them seen 
to be put down at random ; and, in the crowded parts of the cemeteries, tht 
time is fast advancing, when, as in the Pere la Chaise Cemetery, no monu 
ment will be approachable, but by scrambling through between a number o 
oUier monuments. In our opinion all the cemeteries require refoimation ii 
this particular without a day's delay. 

As ihe greater number of the London cemeteries are on a retentive clayej 
soil, a system of euriace drainage is absolutely necessary to allow the gras: 
to be walked on with comfort during the greater number of days in the year 
but we pronounce it to be impossible to execute a system of sur&ce drainagt 
which shall be permanent, where the imaginary square system is adopted 
because, in the carrying out of that system, every drain is liable to be inter 
rupted by a grave either made or to be made. 

The system of laying out the roads is objectionable in some of the ceme- 
teries; because it is not continuous, but interrupted by branches claiming tc 
be equally important with the main road. The purposes for which a road ii 
made are, to allow of using, and also of displaying, the country, estate, 01 
scenery, which it passes through ; and hence in every country residence 
garden, and cemetery, there ought to be one master road, by going alonj 
which the whole residence, garden, or cemetery, might be aurveyed, withoui 
the attention being drawn off by side or branch roads of equal breadth and 
importance with the main road. The whole of aome of the London ceme. 



time, and, in regard to effect, with diminished force of e_ _.. 

the main road, even when conducted near a straight wall, is made to s 
pentine in a manner which, being unaccounted for either by natural or ai 
ficial obstacles, such as inequalities of surface or trees, is quite ridiculous. 



LONDON CEMETERIES AS GARDENS. 69 

There ought not to be a road or a walk in any cemetery, the direction of 
which is not accounted for, by the boundary fence, the inequalities of the 
surface of .the ground, by cemetery buildings op tombs, or by the disposition 
of trees and shrubs. 

In all the cemeteries there is a great want of gravel walks, which always 
afford fine opportunities for borders of graves, with intervening trees or 
shrubs. (See the plan^. 41.) 

The planting of all the cemeteries is, in our opinion, highly objectionable, 
for various reasons already given. It is too much in the style of a common 
pleasure-ground, both in regard to the disposition of the trees and shrubs, 
and the kinds planted. Belts and clumps can never be required in a ceme- 
tery either for shelter or shade ; because nothing is so desirable as to have a 
firee current of air, and admit the drying influence of , the sun ; and because 
it is impracticable to form graves in clumps and belts. By scattering the trees 
and shrubs singly, graves may be everywhere formed among them ; and, by 
placing trees continuously along the roads and walks, shade is afforded to 
those who are on them, and a foreground is established to the scenery 
beyond. But the plantations in most of the London cemeteries appear to 
have been made without the guidance of anjr leading principle. In one we 
have a thick belt round the margin, occupying one of the finest situations 
which any cemetery affords for border graves ; in another we have scarcely 
any trees along the walks, while we have a number grouped together along 
the centre of the compartments, where they lose much of their effect ; in 
another we have clumps scattered throughout the grounds without any con- 
nexion among themselves, or with any thing around, destroying all breadth 
of effect, and producing neither character nor expression. In one cemetery 
there are so few trees that the whole of the ground and the buildings are 
seen at one glance as soon as we enter the cemetery gates; in another trees 
have been planted which it might have been foreseen would never thrive. 

The kinds of trees we object to, because they are chiefly deciduous, and 
such as produce light-foliaged bulky heads, while fastigiate conical dark 
needle-leaved evergreens shade much less ground, produce much less litter 
when the leaves drop, and, by associations both ancient and modem, are 
peculiarly adapted for cemeteries. 

The Norwood Cemetery Company has published an engraved view of its 
grounds, of which ^g. 42. is a fac-simile ; and, to show the different effect 
which dark-foliaged fastigiate and conical trees would have had, we have 
prepared^. 43., in which it will be observed that the foreground and distance 
are the same as in fig, 42., and that we have confined our alteration to the 
middle of the picture. We do not say that every one who compares the 
two pictures will prefer ours to the other, because we do not allow every one 
to be a judge in this matter ; but we do expect that all will acknowledge 
that there is a distinctive character in our view, and this is what we chiefly con- 
tend for. Every one knows that this character is aimed at in the new ceme- 
teries formed on the Continent, and that the cemeteries of the ancients were 
characterised by the cypress. To show that this is also the case with the 
cemeteries of the East, we have given some views of Oriental cemeteries* 
See figs. 44, 45, and 46. 

[n several of the cemeteries pines and firs have been planted without pro- 
perly preparing the soil, in consequence of which they have become stunted 
and diseased, so as to disfigure rather than to adorn. On the whole it ap- 
pears to us, that almost all the cemeteries have not only been badly planted, 
as far as respects design and taste, but even in regard to execution, and in 
particular in the preparation of the soil. 

The next point on which we would remark is the tombstones, many of 
which, we are happy to say, exhibit progressive improvement in taste. Many, 
at the same time, appear to have been placed on insufiicient foundations, and 
are in consequence already leaning on one side. Every head-stone, monu- 
ment, or tomb, to be secure and stand permanently upright, ought either to 

F 3 



70 ON LAYING OUT CEMETERIES. 

be foumled on ground which has not been moved, or built on piers or walls of 
brick or stone brought up from the boltom of the ^rave. 

The keeping of the new Loudou Cemeteries is in general good, though it 
in very far from what it might be. In some it is highly discreditable, Bfteep 
b^ng admitted to eat the grsas, to save the expense of mowing, and the 
young trees being in consequence cropped by the sheep, and poisoned by their 
wool. In general a sufficient number of hands are not allowed for high keep- 
ing, and day-work is had recourse to, where letting by the Job would be more 
economical to the company, and salis&ctory to the labourers. The mowing 
of the grass, and the keeping of the roads, might be let by contract, and 
the grass kepi much shorter than it is at present i because the contractor 
would soon discover that the shorter he k^t the graxs, the less mowing would 
be requisite ; whereas at present, by way of being eronomical, the grass is 
allowed to attain several inches in length between each growing; or its roots 
ere nourished by the dung of the sheep that graze on it. 

In conclusion, we have to observe ttiat, in our visits to thp different London 
cemeteries, we have received the greatest civility and attention from the su- 
periotendantB ; and, at the respective offices in London, every information has 
been afforded us by the secreiaries with the greatest readiness and politeness. 

As examples of the Eastern mode of planting cemeteries with cypress-like 
trees, we shall give from the Kncycioptc(iia of Gardening, by the permission 
of the proprietors, engravings of the Turkish cemeteries at Pera and at Eyub, 
both near Constantinople, and of the Cemetery of IlaRz in Persia. We 
shall add two examples of Chinese cemeteries, in which are planted trees of 
various forms and characters. 

TbeTurtiih buryhig.groutiiii " are generally favourite places of public resort. 
The principal promenade in the evening, for the inhabitants of Pera, is a very 
extensive cemetery, which slopes to the hariiour, is planted with noble cy- 
presses, and is thickly set in many places with Turkish monuments. The 
opulent Turks have their graves railed in, and often a building over them, in 
some of which lights are kept constantly burning. The inscription on the 
head-stones is usually a sentence from the Koran, written in letters of gold. 
The Turks, like the Welsh, adorn the graves of their friends by planting 
flowers upon them, often the myrtle, but sometimes the amaryllis. ( fig. 44.) 



^ 



ON LAYINO OUT CEHETBBIE8. 



(WUiiam^i Travelt, flee, p. 201.) The vicinity of a cemetery is not in the 
capital of Turkey judged by uiy meana disegreeable, and no spot k so 
lively and well frequented bb the Armenian and Frank burying-ground, at the 
outskirts of Pera, called Maemata, or the tombs. It is shaded by a grove 
of mulberry trees, and is on the edge of aome high ground, whence there is 
a magniHcent view of the suburb of Scutari and a greet portion of the Bos- 
phorUB. (Hobhotae'i TVaceb in Albania, vol. ii. p. 837.) The cemetery of 
the Turks at Constantinople ia the fashionable quarter of the Franks, and 
the pleasure-ground of the Levantines. 'It is the only place of recreation in 
Pera. (_Madden'i TurAei/, p. 204.) The Turkish cemeteries are generally 
out of the city, on rising ground, planted with cedars, cypresses, and odori- 
ferous shrubs, whose deep verdure and graceful forms bending in every breeze 
give a melancholy beauty to the place, and excite sentiments very congenial 
to its destination. (Evitace'i TraveU, See, p. *fi.) The Cemetery of Eyub, 
near Constantinople, is crowded with graves ; those which contain males 
have generally a turban at the head of the flat tombstone, and nearly all have 
plants growing from the centre of the stones. (^. 45.) I%e magniiicent 
burial-ground of Scutari extends for miles in length, and among high and 
turbaned tombstones, with gold -lettered inscriptions, mournful cypresses are 
thickly planted. (Atexatuter'i TraveUfiom India, p. 240.) There is a very large 
burying-ground, shaded by an extensive forest of cypresses at Boumabat, a 
village of elegant country houses built in the European fashion, belonging to 
the merchants of Smyrna. (Hobhoiae't Traveli in Albania, vol. i. p. 6M.)" 
{Encyc. of Gard. ed. 1834, p. 300.) 

Fenian Cemeteriei. — " There are said to be 1001 mausoleums at Shiraz; those 
of Chodsja Hafiz and Saadi Sjerafl (both celebrated poets) are the most beau- 
tiful. The burial-place of the firstCj^.46.) is situated at Huselli, an estate pos- 



ng. 46, TJu Cemilciii tif Hullx. 

sessed by Ilafiz, who, it ia remarked, was not buried by the nation, but had the 
expenses of his funeral defrayed out of hia own private fortune. His cemetery 
ia square and spacious, shaded by poplars (a rare tree in Persia), and having a 
lion carved in atone on each aide of the entrance. The wall is built of brick,and 
coincidea in direction with the cypress trees of the surrounding garden. The 
ground is strewed with tombstones, and divers sepulchral memorials of those 
who had desired to be buried under the guardian influence of the jioet. En- 
tering from the neighbouring garden, which was bequeathed to the cemeterr, 
the keeper conducts a stranger into the place of the sepulchre. This is sur- 
rounded by lattice-work, and contains three tumuli liesides the grave of the 
poet ( one encloses the remains of a secular prince, and the other two illus- 



74 ON LAYING OUT CEMETERIES. 

trious individuals, who, when living, were disciples of Hafiz. In the place 
of the sepulchre sits a priest, who repeats verses from the Koran in praise 
of the illustrious dead, and enumerates their virtues ; when he has finished, 
another, and afterwards a third, in the open burjring-place, take up the same 
theme ; so that the lamentations are incessant. The tomt)s are placed in a 
row ; and the form of all of them is the same. They are about the size of a sar- 
cophagus, and have each a large stone, about a man's height, at both ends. 
The stone of which they are made is of a common kind, and unpolished. On 
each side are sculptured verses from the Koran, and on the stones placed at 
the feet are elegant epitaphs. Hafiz died a. d. 1340. {Kcempfer^s Amoen. 
ExoL, &c. fas. ii. rel. vi. p. 367.) " (Encyc. of Gard., ed. 1834, p. 371.) 

In the Chinese cemeteries, trees of various descriptions are introduced, 
and the tombs are of very remarkable forms. *' About Canton and Macao the 
high lands are very little cultivated, being generally set apart for burying the 
d^d ; those about Canton are entirely occupied as cemetenes, the low grounds, 
which can be covered with water, being the only ones which will produce 
rice. (DobeU's JVave/s, &c., vol. ii. p. 191.) Sometimes, however, the 
Chinese choose a valley for a cemetery, as that of the Vale of Tombs near 
the lake See Hoo. (Jig. 47.) The Chinese burying-place near the Yellow 
River (Jig. 48.) is a specimen of a cemetery on high ground." (Encyc. of 
Gard,, ed. 1834, p. 338.) 



VIIL Country Churchyards ; their present State, and Means of 

Improvement. 

What traveller or tourist is there that does not make the churchyard 
of the village one of the first scenes which he visits ; and does not re- 
ceive from it his first impressions of the clergyman, the people, and conse- 
quently of the general character of the inhabitants ? If such be the effect 
of a glance at the chiu'chyard on the passing stranger, what must it be on 
those to whom its image is constantly present, and by whom it is associated 
with all that is reverential in feeling? To the local resident poor, un« 
cultivated by reading, the churchyard is their book of history, their bio- 
graphy, their instructor in architecture and sculpture, their model of taste, and 
an important source of moral improvement. Much, therefore, must depend 
on the manner in which churchyards are laid out, and the state in which they 
are kept. A country labourer may not have the habits of attention and ob- 
servation sufficiently developed to derive improvement from the style or taste 
displayed in the architecture of the church ; but there is not one countryman 
that does not understand the difference between slovenliness and neatness, 
between taste and no taste, when applied to walks, grass ground, and gardens. 
All of them, therefore, may have their taste for neatness and order improved, 
or their habits of slovenliness confirmed, by the weekly impressions made on 
them while passing through the churchyard to the church ; and, while their 
habits of life are ti^us improved or deteriorated, their hearts are softened and 
ameliorated, or hardened and diseased, by viewing the graves or monuments 
of their friends and relations neatly kept or utterly neglected, and reflecting 
that they also must soon take their place among them and be neglected in 
their turn. The intellectual and moral influence which churchyards are calcu- 
lated to have on the rural population will not, we think, be disputed. Every 
person, indeed, who has been brought up in the country must feel this. How 
far then does the appearance of our churchyards answer the important educa- 
tional ends which they are calculated to effect ? It will not be denied, we think, 
that very few of them are kept in a manner to answer the end proposed, and that 
a very great many are in a state of deplorable neglect. In many cases we find 
the lawn and pleasure-ground of the clergyman displaying the greatest order 
and neatness, while his churchyard has no care bestowed on it ; or is perhaps 
disfigured by the state of the surface, or the want of repair of the surrounding 



76 ON LAYING OUT 0£M£TEBIES. 

fence. But the wretched state of the churchyards has been, perhaps, suffi- 
ciently dwelt on both in this and in other publications, and we shall therefore 
confine ourselves to pointing out the causes of their present state separately, 
and suggesting the modes by which these causes may be removed. 

Want of Order, — The cause of this evil in churchyards is, that they have 
not been originally laid out on any regular or svstematic plan* Not only is 
there no gravel or paved walk round the churchyard in many c^es, but in 
some there is nothing more than a footpath from the yard-gate to the door of 
the church. In many churchyards it is too late to remedy this evil in an 
effectual manner, but we have never seen one in which the evil might not be 
removed to a considerable extent, without that which at first sight seems 
absolutely necessary, levelling the turf mounds over the graves. This is to 
be avoided by bringing in soil sufficient to raise the space between the grave 
mounds to a level or even surface, varying the direction of the walk, and 
expanding, contracting, branching, divaricating, and inosculating it, so as never 
to disturb a ^avestone or anv description of stone monument. The idea of 
such a walk is given in the sketch, ^. 49., in which it is indicated by the 
lines a a; and the effect, after the trees have been planted, is shown in 
Jig, 50., p. 79. In this figure is also exhibited an addition made to the 
old ground, laid out in a regular manner. In the interior of the ground, 
grass paths ought to be formed to the graves to which there is not 
direct access from the gravel walks to enable spectators to view the 
tombs without the appearance of treading on graves. The walk would 
seldom require to be raised more than 18 in., and it ought to have a 
grass margin on each side of the same height as the gravel, of at least 2 ft. 
in width. Where a flat gravestone was to be crossed over, it might be raised 
up to the proper level ; some other descriptions of stone might be sunk ; and, 
in cases of great difficulty, a gravestone might be crossed by a bridge 
composed of a flag-stone of the width of the walk, supported on two piers ; 
but such would be of rare occurrence. When they did happen, advantage 
might be taken of the circumstance to make a raised seat, which would give a 
bird's-eye view of part of the churchyard ; or a handsome open structure 
might be erected in harmony with the scene, and suitable for taking shelter in, 
or for strangers to witness the performance of a funeral. We never saw a 
case where a bridge would be necessary ; but we suppose one, in order to 
show the resources of this mode of improvement, and, if possible, to convince 
our readers that there is not a churchyard in the country that might not 
be surrounded with a gravel walk, leaving a border between it and the wall ; 
provided the clergyman and the other parties whose duty it is were to set 
earnestly about it. Cross green paths might be formed 2 or 3 feet in width, 
and they may be even more irregular than the surrounding gravel paths. 

Another source of disorder and also of waste ground in churchyards is, that 
no systematic plan has been laid down and followed in allotting the graves. 
The graves are put down at random, leaving spaces between them either too 
narrow for graves, or of shapes so irregular that they cannot be filled up, so 
that in many churchyards a large proportion of the ground is thus rendered 
useless. It most frequently happens that the places are chosen by the de- 
ceased during his lifetime, or by his friends afterwards ; and, some persons 
having partialities for particular parts of the ground, especially high and dry 
parts, the graves are crowded together in such parts, while in others there are 
comparatively few. Many persons have an objection to being buried on the 
nortn side of a church, probably from the comparative dampness and gloom- 
iness of that side as compared with the south side. Hence we often see the 
south side of a churahyard crowded, while the north side is comparatively 
without graves. The radical cause of^ this evil is the placing of the church in 
the direction of east and west, in consequence of which a considerable portion 
of the churchyard is in shade during the whole of the winter, and the greater 
portion of every day throughout the year, whereas, had the church been placed 
in the direction of S. W. and N. E., or of N. W. and S. E., the sun would 



COUNTRY CHUBCH YARDS. 



77 




Fig. A9'A Churchward no longer used for burying in, wUh Lines showing the Direction in which 
WeUk* may he made, without removing any Head-stones or other Monutnenis. 



78 ON LATINO OUT CEMETEBIES. 

have shone on every side wall of the church, and consequently on the ground 
on every side of it, every day in the year on which he appeared, and hence 
the churchyard would have been every where equally dry and inviting. 

Every grave is a parallelogram in plan, and for practical purposes these 
parallelograms may be considered as all of the same length and breadth. It 
is obvious, therefore, that, to get as many of these parallelograms as possible 
into a limited space, they ought to be placed in rows side by side. Supposing 
the walks to be bordered with spaces sufficient for a single or a double row of 
graves, as we have recommended for adoption in laying out cemeteries, then 
the interior should be laid out in double beds, in the manner which we have 
already described as calculated to make the most of any given space ^see 
J^, 17. in p. 30.). The beds need not in every case be regularly formed like 
the beds of a garden ; but, whether this is done or not, they should be marked 
off with sunk stones at the angles and at each end of the central space on 
which the gravestones are to be placed, in order that the true position and 
dimensions of the beds may never be doubtful, and may never undergo any 
change through the carelessness of the grave-digger. An arrangement of this 
kind would not hinder parties from choosing graves in any part of the ground , 

as at present ; while it would prevent the great waste of surface that now ! 

takes place, and obviate the necessity of ever walking over graves, either to \ 

look at gravestones, or for the performance of funerals. In whatever 
manner a churchyard is arranged, leaving the choice of ground free is decidedly 
advantageous, both in point of utility and appearance. In point of utility, it 
is better that the whole of the churchyard should be open to the choice of the j 

parishioners, and thus the graves scattered over it, and consequently the water ■ 

and the gases of decomposition diffused over a large uncferground space, 
and thus diluted and weakened, than that they should be concentrated in one | 

spot, and their bad effects aggravated ; and it is more picturesque to have the 
graves and tombstones scattered here and there over the whole ground, than 
to have one part closely filled with graves and tombstones, and all the re- 
mainder without any. 

Want of PerpendicularUy in the Monuments and Gravestones, — From not 
placing the head-stones and other monuments on secure foundations, they 
are, in almost every churchyard, seen leaning in all directions ; and, when com- 
posed of more than one stone, the joints are cracked, and the whole threatens 
to fall in pieces. This is an evil which admits of a remedy both with a view 
to the past and the future, without the slightest degree of desecration, though 
the expense of resetting monuments in a churchyard crowded with them 
might be found inconvenient. With respect to monuments to be erected in 
future, it will be sufficient for the manager of the burying-ground to 
insist on the monuments being placed on solid ground, or on a sure foun- ■ 

dation of masonry or brickwork, as deep as the grave, as already indicated I 

with reference to cemeteries in p. 28. i 

The slovenly State of the Grass and Herbage is the uext evil which we shall j 

notice. The surface of most graveyards is covered with long grass and rank j 

weeds ; and, though this is apparently a less evil than those which have been men- * 

tioned, it is in reality a greater one, because its removal requires little or no outlay. 
Hence it bears on the face of it the most unequivocal marks of negligence and 
slovenliness, instead of setting an example of neatness, care, and respect. In 
crowded churchyards the soil, from the water of decomposition, is necessarily 
rendered much damper than in ordinary ground, and it is proportionately 
richer. Hence the extraordinary vigour of the grass, docks, nettles, thistle, 
brambles, &c., and other large plants, which it produces ; and the annual decay 
of this vegetation, saturated with the gases which emanate from the masses of 
putrefaction below, must be productive of malaria, more or less according to 
circumstances. The unoccupied corners and those parts of churchyards most 
distant from the eye, or from thdr dampness or other causes least frequented, 
are particularly obnoxious in these respects ; and hence one of the great ad- 
vantages that would result from having every churchyard surrounded by a 



COUHTRY CHDRCHTABD8. 



Fff . M. A Ckntchiiard fu loaeer uudfor btirvba in, planltd at a Cemelerv Gi 
FitctafGmaiSadiUilaadliMoia. 



80 



ON LAYING OUT CEMETEBIBS. 



gravel walk, with a border between that walk and the boundary fence. The 
next remedy for the eyfl of rank grass and weeds is, to carry off as much as 
possible of the surfiice water. This may be effected by forming the sur&ce 
m such a manner as to favour the descent of the water which falls on it to 
gratings connected with drains, or to surface gutters, which shall cany the 
water out of the churchyard. The die-draining system may in many cases be 
applied^under the green paths and gravel walks; and, where there are springs, 
it is almost needless to state that deep under]|round drains should be made 
under the main walk. By thus efiectually drying the surfiice, the grass will 
grow much less luxuriantly and be easier Kept under by mowing, clipping, or 
shearing, than when left in the moist state now so general in churchyards. 

The grass should be kept constantly very dosdy cropped, by the scythe, 
the hec^e-shears, the sheqvshears, or the hook. In some churchyards 
the ^ve mounds are so clumsfly made, and laid up in such rough lumps, 
that it is difficult to mow the grass which grows on them, and in this case the 
reaping-hook or shears ought to be used. In most parishes there are aged 
persons, male or female, who would gladly undertake this wotk ; and a very 
good mode of getting it executed would be to divide the ground into portions, 
and let out the keeping of each portion to persons whose pride it would 
be to keep their charge in as high order as possible. By this means some in- 
terest would be given to what is now a heartless kind of labour, and the com- 
petition would insure efficiency. The mowera or clippers would soon discover 
that the shorter they kept the grass the less it would grow, and the less would 
be their labour. Clipping, however, would only be necessary occasionally ; for, 
wherever the grave, mounds are neatly formed and smooth on the suiface, 
they may always be mown with the scythe, which is much better than cropping 
widfi the reaping-hook, the mouth of the operator in the former case being 
so much farther fi'om the soil and its exhalations. 

In some churchyards sheep are admitted with a view to crop the grass, 
which they do efiectually when in sufficient numbers, and when aided by the 
spud to eradicate broad-leaved coarse-looking plants which sheep will not eat ; 
but, as in the case of sheep being admitted into churchyards, it is impossible 
for any person to ornament a grave with shrubs or flowers, and, as the 
poor have frequently no other means of showing their respect for the dead, 
we would prohibit the introduction of sheep into churchyards except where 
a portion of the ground had not been buried in, and that portion we would 
separate from the rest by a fence of wire hurdles, and keep it short by sheep 
to save the expense of mowing. 

Desecration, — Not only sheep, but cows, horses, and swine, are admitted to 
graze the churchyards in some places ; and, in the intellectual town of Had- 
dington, the minister of the cathedral burial-ground not only allowed his 
sheep to graze in the churchyard, but carted in turnips to them there, and 
fattened them for the butcher. In many parts of the country, particularly in 
Scotland, the boundary fences of churchyards are in such a state that swine 
and dogs have free access to them, and the former are allowed to tear up the 
grave mounds, and even to burrow into the graves. Where houses are built 
on the margins of churchyards, as they frequently are in small country towns*, 
the waste water and other refuse from the house are thrown from the windows 
among the graves ; and, shocking as it may be to relate, in some parts of 



♦ The churchyard of Carlow is in the centre of the town, and so closely 
surrounded by tenements, that in some places the wall of the dwelling-house, 
oflen loosely built, alone divides the bed of the occupant from the (perhaps 
newly tenanted) grave ; this, although rendering the air sufficiently insalu- 
brious, is not the only cause of impurity, as the annual decay of noxious 
plants, luxuriant in a place so rank and untrodden as our graveyards, uni- 
versally neglected, are, where vegetable decomposition above ground is as 
much a consequence as animal decay beneath, injures most seriously the 
surrounding atmosphere. (Health of Toivns, p. 197.) 



. COtJNTBY CHURCHYARDS. 81 

Scotland^ as there are tto privies, either public Or private, for tlie tommori 
people, the churchyard is the place of common reacort. That we may not be 
accused of exaggeration, we shall refer to the burying-ground of the established 
church in Stranraer, as it was in 1841. A more hideous spectacle of the kind 
we never saw ; but it is doubtless ia a better aitate now, because the Earl . 
of Stafr, with his accustomed liberality and public spirit, has since presented 
the town with a piece of ground for a general cemetery ; and is about to 
erect another structure for public convenience equally necessary. Bad as the. 
churchyards are in England, they are much worse in Scotland ; for there the 
extra^professiopal pursuits of the clergy are more frequently^ directed to farm-' 
ing than to matters of taste. 

The chameUhousei or bone-house, needs only to be mentioned to excite 
disapprobation; for, if churchyards were properly managed, no fragment of a 
coffin or human bone would ever be disinterred or seen by the living. There 
are two modes of effectually attaining this object: the first is b^ never 
placing more than one coffin in a grave ; or, if more are placed in it, either in- 
terring them at the same time, or placing the first coffin so deep as to admit of 
a stratum of 6 ft. in thickness between it and the second coffin ; the last- 
deposited coffin, in either case, being not less than 6 ft. under the surface of 
the ground : and the second mode is by placing on the last-deposited coffin 
a guard, or fi^Uowing stone, as already suggested in p. 6, 

Allowing public passages to be made through cnurcfayards is a common 
source of desecration ; but, as these passages are generally conducive to' the 
convenience of the living, they cannot be dispensed with ; therefore, to pre- 
Tent desecration, they ought to be fenced off on each side. 
, No kind of games ought ever to be allowed in churchyards, nor dogs ado 
mitted if possible, nor smoking, nor in short any thing that would indicate a 
want of reverence for the dead. 

By far the greatest desecration which takes place in churchyard? resulta' 
from their crowded state, in consequence of which a grave caniiot be dug' 
without disinterring coffins and bones. There is no remedy for this evil but 
the. enlargement of churchyards, which is required in every part of the country, 
and should be effected from time to time, according, to some principle or rule 
derived from the population returns, and the average annual burials. 

tfant of Tree* and Shrubs,-^ We have often stated it as our opinion, that* 
country churchyards might be greatly increased in interest, by being carefully 
and systematically laid out, and moderately planted with proper kinds of 
trees and shrubs. These being named would create a great interest in them, 
and the whole of the ground being very neatly kept would difiuse a taste for 
order and neatness among the parishioners. This improvement is beginning 
to take place in various parts of England, though but rarely in Scotland, 
where flowers are considered light and gaudy, and where the great object to 
be attained is to subject the mind to the bondage of fear, by continually re- 
minding the spectator that '' he also must die *, and that death is only the 



« 



From whence you come, or whosoe'er you be. 
Remember, mortal man, that thou must dee^** 

Lines on the Sundial in the Garden at Broughapi Castle^ 

*' Alas I the little day of life 
Is shorter than a span. 
Yet black with many hidden ills 
To miserable man.*' 

Lines on a common Tombstone in Kirkmichael 
Churchyard^ Wigtonshire, 

one of the most gloomy scenes of the kind in the West of Scotland ; it 
contains *' the corpse of Gilbert McAdam, who was shot by the Laird of 
Cullean and Ballochmill, for his adherence to the word of the Lord, and the 
work of Reformation, in July, 1682." 

G 



82 ON LAYING OUT CEMETERIES. 

door to everlasting life.** (fiord, Mag.^ 184S, p. 617.) Far be it from us to 
dispute the justness of this taste, relative to those who hold particular opinions ;' 
for our own part we prefer the decorated churchyard, but we would no more: 
decorate it in the manner of a flower-garden, than we would dress a mourner 
in the same manner as a bride or a bridegroom. 

We shall show at the end of this article the mode in which we think trees 
and shrubs ought to be introduced in new churchyards, and for those already 
long occupied we shall give a few general directions. 

Suppose a walk to be formed immediately within the boundary, leaving a. 
border, regular or irr^ular in width, as the state of the graves and grave- 
stones may admit, then a few trees may be scattered along each side of 
it, singly, so as to form a running foreground to the interior of the church- 
yard, and to break the formality of the boundary fence.' As the walk may 
be supposed to be very irregular in direction and in width, the distance be- 
tween the trees should be irr^^Iar also ; and occasionally two trees, or a tree 
and a shrub, or a tree and a honeysuckle or other cliniber, maybe planted 
in one hole. In the interior of the compartments, where the ground is already 
so completely filled up that there is no chance of any other graves being formed, 
a few trees and shrubs may be so placed as to group with some of the more 
ecNispicuous of the gravestones, and along the cross green paths one or two 
trees may be planted at the angles or turns of the walk, by way of accounting 
for these turns. But, whether in planting in the interior or along the peen 
paths, care must be taken to preserve lengthened glades or vistas to be seen, 
from the main gravel walks. These vistas should not extend fi'om one boundary 
wall to the other, so as to show everywhere the length and breadth of the 
ground, but should rather terminate in an apparent mass of trees or bushes, 
or in a view of the church, so as to leave abundant exercise for the imagina- 
tion. Along the boundary fence, if a wall, which is generally the case, we 
would plant creepers, evergreen and deciduous, but chiefiy the different kinds 
of Ivy, as being evergreen, and Virginian creeper, RhvA radicans,^ &c^ which, 
like me ivy, adhere to the wall, and consequently require little care. Where 
the expense of training was not an object, we would introduce roses, mag- 
nolias, iaurustinus, Cydonia japdnica, Chimonanthus fragrans, and various 
other shrubs, deciduous and evergreen, adapted for walls. Where the fence 
was athorn hedge, we would measure it into regular spaces, so as to train up 
shoots firom the top of the hedge at regular distances, in order to form arti- 
ficial heads, round or square, at such places ; or we would train up a single 
stem, and graft on each a different kind of thorn, or other rosaceous tree or 
shrub. On a holly hedge we would graft variegated hollies^ and on a yew 
hedge the golden yew, which makes such a splendid appearance grafted on 
the common yew at Elvaston Castle. If we had to plant a holly hedge or a 
yew hedge round a churchyard, we would form piers or pilastera at regular 
distances in both, which should be carried up higher than the hedge, and ter- 
minate in balls. The piers, in the one case, should be variegated hollies, and 
in the other variegated yews. If we had to plant a hawthorn hedge, we 
would form the piers of green Holly. 

Where a churchyard, though long in use, was hot yet filled up, we should 
take care to plant no trees and shrubs, the permanent effect of which was 
essential, in situations where they would have to be removed when a grave 
was dug. We should place them chiefly along the walk&, at such distances as 
to leave room for one or two graves between every two trees. 

In few or no cases would we plant large-growing deciduous timber trees in 
churchyards, such as the oak, ash, elm, beech, white or black Italian poplar, 
Huntingdon willow, alder, sycamore, &c. ; because, from the size they attain, 
they would interfere with the effect of the church and of the monuments. 
We should confine ourselves to low-growing trees, and, where only a few could 
be planted, to evergreens of fastigiate forms. 

Want of Monuments, — Monuments form a great source of beauty and interest 
in churchyards, and it is gratifying to observe, in the neighbourhood of the 



COUNTRY CHURCHYARDS. 83 

metrqMlis and of other large towns, that as they inereaxe in number tliey are 
improTJug in taste. Every encouragement, we think, ought to be ^ven to 
their introduction in village churchvards. on account of the effbct which thev 
cannot fai) to have on the taste of tliQ inhabitanlB, and more parCicularly on lil 
those connected with the building arta, such as carpenters, niasona, brick- 
layers, &c. It seems unfortunate fliat the revenues of the clergy are mode to 
depend portly on the permission granted to put up monuments, and thus a 
man is taxed for his reverential feeling, and fur erecting an instructive and 
beautiful object, which he wotild, probably, have rendered more beautiful still 
by the amount of fees paid to the clergyman.* A better mode would be to 
encourage the erection of monumentB, by giving the ground as a present on 
condition irf Uie monument being proportionately handsome. We would en- 
courage every kind of monument, irom the most frail to the most permanent, 
as tending to cultivate reverential feelings and improve the taste ; and we 
would encourage the naming of all the trees and shrubs, aa tending to excite 
curiosity and intellectual exercise. 

The churchyard at St. Michael's, at Dumfries, is perhaps the most remark- 
able in Britain, on account of the number and good taste of its tombstones. 
The appearance of these at a distance is singularly grand and picturesque. 
Erecting tombstones at Dumfries ia quite a 
maoia among the middle classes, which haa 
been brought about chiefly by the cheaji and 
eauly wrought red freestone, and the talents 
of the late mason and sculptor, Mr, Alexander 
Crombie. The cheapness of these tombstones, 
compared with the price of similar erections 
about London, ia so great, that we are per- 
suaded thCT might form a profitable article of 
commerce for th^ metropolitan cemeteries. To 
enable those concerned to judge how far this 
may be the case, we give, through the kind- 
ness of Walter Newal^ Esq., architect, Dum- 
fries, figures frocQ the designs of two ntonu- 
ments, not long since erected at the heads of 
the graves of two nurserymen, Messrs. Hood, 
fotber and son; that of the father (fig. 51,) 
cost 3B/.,and that ofthe son, William 0&.5S.),' 
S5l. The carriage to London, by Whitehaven, 
we are informed, would not amount to 51. for 
each o( these monuments. (Gard. Mas. for 

183l,p.529.) . — 

The improvement of the church is chiefly *" ii»»j i [ i i \ t 

the busmesB of the architect; but the gardener ^fg- *'■ '^"""JJ^S'^'j^rt'' ""'''" 
may in various cases cooperate with him, or ' ' 

even supersede his exertions. It is desirable in all cases that a church, like 
every other large building, should stand on a level terrace or platform ; but, 
aa most old churches are buried or earthed up by graves in such a manner as 
that the ground is high^ without than it is within the church, this platform 

* The fees for permission to erect the simplest and cheapest of all stone 
m^Dorials placed by graves, a head and loot stone, vary in the London church- 
yards from 2L2t,to GL Gt. ; for permission to place a Hat stone over a grave, 
from 4/. li. to 12L \2i. i and the price for more ambitious monuments varies 
fnan bl. 5t. to lOA/. For the right to erect "stones and vaults" in the 
Hackney churchyard, though it was greatly enlarged some years ago, from 
three to forty guineas have been paid. {Ctainu of the Clergy, p. 25.) — See An 
Examination of Mr.MacAmnon'i BiU, p. 117. i CaHcU'i Funeral Guide i and 
Heal/6 o/Tottau, &c. 



84 ON LAYIKQ OUT CEMETERIES. 

or tcrrece Ciin seldom or never be formed, without incurring a Jepree of ile- 

Becratiun that woulJ be uiijualifiable. Siill, in a n> jorily of i-asex, a space 

round the walls of the church miglit be 

cleared away to the width of 2 or 3 feet, _ 

and of sucb a depth aa to be at least G in. 

below the level of the floor of the church. 

This Bpaee ought to be carried com- 
pletely round tne church on a perfect 

level, or with merely a very gentle in- 
clination from the middle of the building 

to each end, for the purpose of currying 

off surface water. (Jnder this space 

there should be a tile-dreio within a few 

inches of the surface to carry off ran 

grater, or a deep drain if the nibBoil ,re- 

quiiesil. Thegroundround thisnarrow 

level nlatfonn shiiulit either be supported 

by bnckwork or sloped down with turf, 

according an the graves are nearer or 

more distant; and both the width of the 

platform and the angle of the slope may 

be irr^uier, if circumstances should 

require it. The grand essential object is 

ta get a level base for the walls lo rise 

Crom, the surface of which ahall be 6 in. 

luwer than (he surface of the floor of 

the church. The walk to the churth 

door will require to descend to this plat- ^''^^ '■ — '■ — • — ' — ' — ' '« 

form by an inclined plane, and there viH 

of course be one step of ascent to the 

porch of the church. 

It is unnecessary to state that the walls and roof of the church should be 

kept in good repair, and that in many cases ivy and the Virginian creeper 
might be planted agiunst it ; but we cannot recommend rosea and other plants 
requiring dug soil at the roots, on account of the injury thej- would do to the 
platform, and the expense that would be incurred in training. It is always 
much better not to attempt to do more than can be done well. 

Perhaps it would greatly facilitate the improvement of churchyards, the 
erection of handsome monuments, and the economy of burial to the poor, if 
the fees of the clergymen from the church and, churchyard were commuted 
for a fixed sum to he raised annually by a general rate on the parish ; but thb 
19 a part of the subject not within our province. 

La^ng out and planlhig a new Churchi/ard. — Churchyards, like every otheP 
description of yard or garden, ought to be laid out. planted, and managed, 
with reference to their use; and the scenery .produced should, in its ei- 

- pression and general effect, indicate what that use is, or, at all events^ be in 
accordance with it. A churchyard ought not to be laid out so as to be mis- 
taken for a pleasure-ground, a shrubbery, or a flower-garden j neither, on the 
other hand, ought it to be left in a state of utter neglect, without w^ular 
walks, and overgrown with weeds and rank grass. The uses of the churchyard 
are, as a place of burial, as an enclosure and protection to the church, as a 
place sacred to the memory of the dead, as a place of weekly meeting for 
solemn purposes, and as an approach to the church. All its .uses are of a 
serious and important nature, and it is therefore to be coniiidered as a grave 
ajid solemn scene. Now, the question to be solved in htying out a church., 
yard is, what trees, what treatment of the surface of the ground, the ^rass, 
walks, graves, gravestones, and tombs, will be most conducive to solemnity of 
effect. The expression of the. exterior of the church is grave and solemn, by 
its long-established association with our religious feelings; and it therefore 



. COUNTRY CHURCHTARDS. 85 

may be considered as having a similar influence on the scenery around. . The 
feeling of solemnity is one more of a passive, than of an active, nature : it 
neither needs much cultivation, nor much exercise of the imagination. 
Strong contrasts are not required to excite this feeling, nor varied and in- 
tricate scenery to prolonja; it. On the contrary, this will be more decidedly 
the effect of sameness of form and colour, and their repetition. The solemnity 
of a churchyard has its origin in the uses of the place, and will only be in- 
terfered with or weakened by the introduction of^such objects as interfere 
with these uses. Simplicity, therefore, ought to be a governing principle in 
every thing relating to churchyards ; and, as the appearance of^ n^lect or 
slovenliness always implies want of respect, order and neatness are next in 
importance. By order, we mean the avoiding of every thing like confusion 
in the placing of the graves, tombs, and gravestones, and the disposition of the 
trees: and by neatness, we allude more particularly to keeping the turf short 
and smooth ; the walks firm, even, and free from weeds ; the gravestones 
upright ; and the tombs in a state of repair. 

• The character of a churchyard, as a place of burial, will always be more or 
less influenced by the character and manners of the people to whom it belongs. 
In Britain, churchyards have much less care bestowed upon them than in 
Central Germany, and in some parts of France, Belgium, and Holland. The 
sentiment of respect to the memorv of deceased persons in these countries is 
shown by planting flowers over tne graves, and frequently cultivating them 
there for some years afterwards. Among the Moravians, on the Continent^ 
the churchyard is sometimes laid out in compartments, with walks between, 
like a garden ; and the compartments are kept dug, and planted with flowers 
and ornamental plants. Two powerful arguments are advanced in favour of 
this practice : the first is, that a churchyard so managed costs less than if it 
were in turf, and kept short by mowing ; the second, that the surface of the 
ground has always the same appearance, there being no gravestones or tombs, 
and the ground being left level, and replanted with the plants which stood on 
it before, after every interment ; these having been carefully taken up, and 
placed on one side^ before the grave was dug. It is evident that this mode of 
treating a churchyard, however consonant it may be to the ideas of those who 
adopt it, is not in accordance with our desiderata. ; It does not indicate its 
use, as it has neither raised graves, tombs, gravestones, nor any other ap- 
pearance of its being a place of burial; and it is not calculated to excite 
solemn emotions, as it has all the gaiety of a flower-garden. 
. .;In Britain, respect for the dead is not generally shown by the introduction 
of flowers over their graves ; but the practice prevails in some places throughout 
ihe ^ountryv more especially in Wales, and is not unfrequent in the metro^ 
politah and other cemeteries. Perhaps it ought to be commended and. 
encouraged, as rendering burial-grounds inviting as places to walk in, and as 
the frequent recollection of deceased friends has a tendency to sober the 
mind and cultivate the affections of the living. In every part of Germany 
where the inhabitants are in the habit of cultivating flowers on the graves of 
iheir friends, or even of visiting these graves annually on a certain day and 
decorating them, the inhabitants are a reflective, and very humane and^ 
amiable, people ; for example, at Munich. . The introduction of flowers in 
churchyards, therefore, where they are planted over the graves by the re- 
lations of the deceased, is a very different thing from their introduction in the 
margins of plantations of trees and shrubs, in imitation of shrubberies, as is 
done in some of our public cemeteries ; to the utter neglect, as we think, of 
appropriate character and expression.* Bearing in mind, therefore, the three 



. ♦ Hanover Chapel, Brighton, has a burying-ground which is quite unique* 
A straight avenue of elm trees leads from the entrance gate to the door of the 
ehapel ; and on each side of the gravel walk, which runs down the centre of 
the avenue, is a narrow margin of smooth highly kept grass. Next, there is 

G 3 



86 ON LAYING OUT C£MSTEBI£& 

principles of sunplicity, order, and oeatness, as giudes in lajing out chordi- 
jrards* we »baU next proceed with the details. 

tSUuaiion and Soil. — It is almost unnecesaaiy to obserye that a coaoti7 
church ought either to be built adjoining the yifiage for which it is intended, 
or, if it is to serre two or three villages, in a situation central to them, llie 
surfiice of the ground ought to be an elevated knoll, in order that the church 
and the spire may be seen on every side, and, if possible, throughout the 
whole extent of the parish. The kiioll should be sufficientJy large to admit 
of its summit being reduced to a level, or, at all events, to a nearly level, 
platform, or piece of table land, about the size of the churchyard ; a level 
surface being more convenient for the purpose of interment than a sloping 
one, for a reason that will be given hereafter. Besides which, the ground 
plan of a church being a parallelogram, to see it rising out of a round kooU 
would be contrary to every idea of a suitable and secure foundation. Where 
there is no want of room, or not many burials likely to take place, the sur&ce. 
of a churchyard, instead of being level, may be quite irregular ; but, in this 
ease, the places for graves, and die walks of commonication to these places, 
must be rendered easily accessible, and, to a certain extent, level. This can 
always be effected by laying the ground out in terraces ; a mode of disposition 
which may be as advantageously adopted in churchyard gardemng, as it is in 
gardening as an art of culture. The soil should, if possible, be sandy or 
gravelly, as being most suitable for promoting animal decomposition ; and 
also because there is a general prejudice in favour of being buried in dry soil. 
The worst of all soils for a churchyard b a stiff wet clay ; which, by its com- 
pactness and retention of water, prevents the natural decompositum of the 
body, and changes it into an adipose substance. 

The i^ze oftSe Churchy and the Extent of the Churchyard^ will depend on the 
population for whose service they are intended ; and on the probable slowness 
or rapidity of its increase. The form of the church may be considered as 
fixed, by precedent and immemorial usage, in that of a parallelogram, with or 
without projections at the sides, so as to give it the form of a Latin cross ; 
and having a tower* steeple, or cupola, at one end, for the church bells and a 
clock. There are some examples, however, of churches bavins been made 
semidrcular, circular, or polygonal, in the plan, so aa to suit uiem to par- 
ticular situations. 

The Ibrm of the churchyard is not fixed, like that of the church, but will 

on each side a neat low wire fence, and beyond this is the burying-ground, the 
greater part of which is dug and planted with herbaceous pUmts, interspersed 
with low trees and flowering shrubs, and divided by walks, in some places 
straight, and in others winding. The whole is interspersed with graves and 
^vestones ; and, as the gates in the wire fence are all kept locked, no person 
IS allowed to walk among the graves who is not admitted by the gaitlener. 
Cvery recent grave is covered with a mound of green turf, kept smooth by 
cHppmg or mowmg, and all the rest of the ground is kept dug and planted ; 
so that no flowers can be said to be grown on the recent graves, but only 
beside them. The recent graves are those in which interments have taken 
place within two or three years ; and are always known by being covered 
with green turf, which is kept fresh by watering, and short and thick by fre- 
quent mowing. Nothing that we ever saw in a cemetery or churchyard comes 
np to the high keeping displayed in this one. The walks and their edges 
'^^''f P^fJ®^*» .^he ffl-ass every where like velvet ; the dug ground as fresh and 
Md tl^ ^ u ®^ ^^" recently dug and raked ; the flowers neatly staked 
Mcaf coiiw"''' '^"®''® *y>ng was required ; and not a single decayed flower or 
i vv nndoth^r ?-t^^^ ®"y ^*^®''®- '^^^ boundary walls were covered with 
j»n<J some ^h i ''®' ^^^ ^^ observed trained on them one or two fig trees 
^fertce we coiill*^ Plants of the tree kind ; but as, in consequence of the wire 
oni the ftven.r«"°V^®* ■'^to the interior walks, we speak only of what we law 
venue. QGard. Mag,, IS4>2, p, 34^9,) 



A 



COUNTRY CHURCHYABDS. 87 

hatarally be determined jointly by the form and position of the church, and 
the form of the ground which surrounds it. If the ground be level, or nearly 
so, then the outline of the churchyard may coincide with that of the church, 
so as also to form a large parallelogram, in the direction of east and west, that 
being the prescribed bearing of ail Christian churches. There is, however, as 
we have already seen (p. 76.), a ereat disadvantage in placing; the church so 
as to bear east and west, which is, that the north side, both of the church 
walls and the part of the churchyard next them, is kept great part oQfthe year 
in the shade, and the ground is consequently rendered damp, and uninviting to 
bury in. We are happy to find that in some parts of the country the advan- 
tage of a diagonal bearing is beginning to be understood and acted on, both in 
dwellings and churches. Indeed, no single building or row of houses, or 
street, should be set down in the direction of east and west, unless there 
is some very decided reason for doing so. 

If the church be situated on the summit of a conspicuous conical hill, or 
dome-like knoll, then the outline of the churchyard will be determined solely 
by the ground, and may be circular, oval, or roundish ; and we may here ol>- 
serve, that, when cases of this kind occur, as they are not very common, we 
think the ground plan of the church ought to be round, or roundish, also. In 
general, the position and form of the churchyard ought to be such as will have 
a good efiect from all the different parts of the surrounding parish from which 
it is seen ; while, at the same time, it should look well from its immediate 
vicinity, and also from the different doors and sides of the church. 

The SUe of the Church should be central to the natural shape of the ground 
which is to constitute the churchyard, when that shape is in any way remark- 
able ; but, where the surface of the ground is level, the church may be placed 
nearer one end of the parallelograro, or other-shaped piece of ground, which 
forms the churchyard, than another ; or even nearer to one side, provided 
this is not attend^ with injustice to the parishioners. In general, the exact 
position of the church within the churchyard, when not determined bv natural 
circumstances, ought to be regulated by the number of sides on which it is 
approachecL If ^e parish lie equally round the church on every side, there 
will be at least four gates to the churchyard, corresponding with the four car- 
dinai points ; and in that case the church ought to be in the centre of the 
churchyard ; but, if there be only a gate at one end, or if there should be 
several gates all nearer one end than Uie other, the church ought to be 
placed accordingly. 

The Ground Plan of the Churdi, its exact position in the churchyard, the 
boundary lines of the latter, and the different churchyard doors or gates being 
fixed on, before any thing farther is done, the church ought to be built ; and 
we shall suppose that its elevation is so designed as to appear to rise from a 
platform ofgra^el or pavement, of from 10 ft. to 20 fl. wide, according to th6 
size of the church j this platform, or terrace, being supported by a sloping 
bank of turf, at an angle of 45°, and furnished with flights of steps opponte 
each of the churchyard aates. Underneath the surrounding platform there 
ought to be a deep barrel-drain or box-drain, for receiving the rain-water from 
the roof of the church, and thus keeping the foundations dry; and from this 
drain there ought to proceed others of the same kindj under each of the walks 
which lead from the church platform to the boundary wall. These last, besides 
carrying away the water collected in the drain which surrounds the church, 
will dry the subsoil of the churchyard generally, and enable it the better to 
absorb the water of decomposition ; and receive the surface water from the 
walks, through gratings placed at regular distances. 

The Boundofy Fence of the churchyard should be such as to exclude every 
kind of domestic ^adruped ; but it is not, in general, necessary that it should 
be so h%fa as to prove a barrier to man; because it may fairly be supposed that 
most persons will reverence the interior more or less, and that those who 
are without this reverence will have, in general, nothing to gain by breaking 
into sc^ch a scene. We here exclude altogether the consideration of body- 

o 4 



89 ON L4.YIN0 OUT CEHET^IEB. 

stealing, Mbich a recent judicious law has rendered no longer a profitable busi- 
ness, more especially in country places Aa awine and rabtnts are ^xirticularlj' 
bfiensive in churchvardB, eapecislly where the soil is eaady, tbe boundary fence 
eboLild either be a low wall of 3 ft., Burmounted by a holly m* thorn hedge ; or 
B wall of 6 or 7 feet in height, without any hedge. In the latter case, the 
iilDGr face of the wall may be planted nrtlh commoD ivy. Where the church- 
yard is to be united with the adjoining lawn, garden, or pleamre-ground of the 
parsonure, the boundary fence on the aide nest the residence may be an open 
iron ramng; and, where it is to be united with a pleasure-ground on a large 
scale, or a park, it may either be surrounded by an open iron ruling, or by a 
deep and wide sunk fence. If a hedge is in any case determined on as the 
boundary to a churchyard, it ought to be kept much broader at bottom than 
at top, in order that it may grow quite thicK and close there ; and the only 
plants fit for such a hedge are the common white thorn and the holly. 

The Walki of a C/iurchyard ate of two kinds: those for proceeding from the 
difierent gates in the boundary fence to the church doors, for persons eoiog 
to, or returning from, the church; and those which make the circuit of the 
churchyard, for the more conveniently viewing tbe tombs and graves, and for 
conductbg funerals. The walks proceeding from the entrance rates in the 
boundary fence to the church doors should be always in straight unes, and of 
a width proportionate to the size of the church and churchyard, but never 
row:er than 6 (I. ; because this is the least width which will allow two per- 
is abreast, carrying a coffin between them on handspokes, to pass solemnly 
along s the width, indeed, should be greater rather than less, because nothing 
can be more indecorous than to see a funeral procession crowded and huddled 
together for want of room. In every case, we would, if possible, place the 
entrance gates so that the walk from them to the church, whether to its aides 
or its ends, might always meet the building at a right angle. 

With respect to the walk round the churchyard, it should iu every case, and 
whether the churchyard were small or large, be at a distance of at least 10 IL 
from the boundary wall, in order to leave a border sufficiently broad for a 
range of graves to be placed at right angles to the wall. This walk should be 
«f the same breadth as the others ; and, like them, in no case less than 6 ft., 
for the reasons already mentioned. In most churchyards this boundary walk, 
and the cross walks necessary as t^proaches to tbe church, will be sufficient ; 
but, where this \» pot the case, cross walks from the boundary walk to the 
terrace round the church may be added ; or a second surronncung walk may 
be formed, half-way between the terrace or walk round the church, and the 
circumferential walk. 

77ie gnuiy Surface of a Churchward, when it is newly bid out, should, of 
course, be even; and the nearer it is to level, the more convenient will it be 
tor alt the purposes of interment. Whether even or uneven, it should always 
have a descent from the church, rather than towards it, for the sake of throw- 
ing off the surface water; and in strong clayey sails, in moist climstea, pro- 
vision ought to be made b^ surface gutters, even ip the turf, for conveying the 
water to underground drams, or directly along the surface to the boundary of 
the churchyard, 

7Ve» in Churchffardt. — The number of trees which may be introduced into 
a churchyard depends on its situation and soil ; the great object, next to that 
of leaving abundance of room for the graves, being to preserve dryness, in 
order to permit the escape of the mephitic effluvia that may rise to the 
surface, which can only be effected by the admission of abundmice of light and 
air. _ Where the soil is clayey, and the situation low, very few trees are 
admissible; and these letr should be small fastigiate-growing kinds, that neither 
cover a large space with their branches, nor give too much shade when the 
sun shines. In an elevated open situation, where the anil is sandy or gravelly, 
the trees in a churchyard may be comparatively numerous ; because the shelter 
which they will afford in winter will produce warmth to persons crossing the 
churchyard to church ; and. from the luriness of the situation, and dryDcss ni 






COUNTRY CHUItCHTABDS. 89 

the soil, they will loot produce damp when their leaves are oti in sumvaer, but 
will freely admit of evaporation from the surface. 

Supposing a new churchyard to be planted, we should place the trees 
fchiefly at regular distances, in rows parallel to the walks. There are very feW 
churchyards that would bear more trees than a row on each side of the cir* 
fumferential walk, and also on each side of the walks leading from the 
entrance gates to the church doors ; while, in cases of limited extent, and a 
clayey soil, a row of trees, planted at .regular distances alons the boundary 
fence, will, perhaps, be as many as can be introduced without producing 
damp ; and, m others, a few trees along each side of the principal walk from 
the entrance gate of the churchyard to the church will, perhaps, be enough. 
It must hot i^ forgotten, that the principal part of the area or a churchyard, 
in general, lies from east to west; and, consequently, that all trees planted in 
that direction will throw a shade upon the ground the greater part of every 
day that the sun shines, throughout the year. For this reason, where the soil 
is so damp, or the situation so confined, as to render it advisable to introduce 
but very few trees, these ought either to be in lines along such of the ap« 
proaches to the church terrace as lie in the direction of north and south ; or 
to be introduced as single trees, at the intersections of the cross walks with 
the boundary walk. 

The kinds pf trees to be planted in a churchyard form a subject of as great 
ioiportance as their number ; because a single tree of some species will pro- 
duce more bulk of head, and consequently more shelter, shade, and damp, than 
half a dozen trees of some other kinds. As a guide in the choice of the kinds 
of trees, it may be adopted as a principle, that none ought to be planted 
which will grow higher than the side walls of the church ; because to conceal 
the church b^ its appendages or ornaments is inconsistent, not only with good 
taste, but with common sense. By good taste, in this instance, we mean 
allowing the. church to have its . proper expression, as the principsd and most 
dignified object in the landscape. Thorns, hollies, maples, sycamores, yews, 
mountain ash, wild service, &c., ar& suitable trees for the churchyards of very 
small churches ; and the common maple, some species of oaks, suck as the 
evergreen oak, the Italian oak, and some of the American oaks, with a host of 
other middle-sized trees, are suitable for the churchyards of churches of the 
ordinary size. There are very few country churches, indeed, which have even 
their towers or spires sufficiently high to admit of the stronger-growing elms 
or poplars being planted in theur churchyards. The Oriental plane (not the 
Occidental) may be especially recommended, on account of the stone-like hue 
of its bark and foliage, its finely cut leaves, and agreeable shade, for churches 
of both the largest and the middle size. The purple beech would harmonise 
well in churchyards with the dark yew ; and the flowering ash is^ also, a very 
(suitable tree. 

As all trees in churchyards must be liable to have their roots injured by the 
iligging of graves, this is one grand argument for planting the trees alongside 
the walks ; because in that case there will be always one side of the tree the 
roots of which will remain untouched, viz. those which spread under the 
walk. For the same reason, trees with roots that spread near the surface, 
such as the pine and fir tribe, should seldom be made choice of. Were it not 
on this account, the cedar of Lebanon would be one of the most fitting of all 
trees for a churchyard, from the sombre hue of its foliage, and its grand and 
yet picturesque form ; from the horizontal lines of its spreading branches 
contrasting strongly with the perpendicular lines of a Gothic church ; and» 
above all> from the associations donnected with it, on account of its frequent 
mention in Holy Writ. For all these reasons, it were much to be wished 
that, in all new churchyards, two or three spots (each of about 30 ft. in dia^ 
pieter) were set apart, not to be broken up tor interments, and each planted 
with a cedar of Lebanon. In many old churchyards in the country, a spot 
sufficiently large for at least one cedar might easily be spared ; and the cler<^ 
gyinao. or the churchwardens who should, plant a cedar on such a spot, and 



90 ON ULTING OUT CEMETERIES. 

fenoe k nfficiently while joung, would confer m grand and appropriate oma* 
ment on the chorcfa, and would deaenre the gratitude of the parishioners. 

No trees should he pbnted m a diurchj^ini the natural habit of which is 
to grow near water, such as willows, alders, &c. ; because the expression 
conveyed by such trees» being that of a moist situation, is altogether unsuit- 
able for a churchyard ; neverSideas, as the public in general do not |)artici- 
pate in these asaociitioDs, one of the moat popular trees in churchyards eveiy 
where is the weqiing willow. On the whole, die cypress, the yew, the Irish 
vew, the red cedbur, die SweiBsh and Irish junipers, the Jimiperus rec6rva^ 
the Oriental aibor vita?, the diflerent qiedes of thorns, die common Mont- 
pdier, mountain, and other maples, the wild service, the whitebeam tree and 
its hybrids, the holly, and a few others, are the most suitable low trees for 
churchyards; next, those which grow about the hdsht of the Norway maple ; 
and, lastly, those whidi rank in point of sixe widi the Oriental plane. 

TV S^iem oflmienmnis m Ouwh^mrdM is, in general, voy imperfect ; and, 
indeed, m many cases no system whatever is Mopted. The obvious prin- 
ciple is, to place die tombs near the eye, and conisequendy near the walks ; 
and to place the graves without eravestones in' the interior of the c(Mn- 
partments. For this reason, we woiud reserve a str^ of ground, 10 or 13 feet 
in width, along both ades of the walks (whidi would include the whole of the 
space between the boundary walk and the boundary wall) ; these strips 
should be devoted exdusivdy to fenuly burial-places, whether merely indi- 
cated by comer stones, or railed in, or containing gravestones or tombs. 
The whole of the compartments being thus bordmd by strips for fiunily 
burial-places or purchased graves, the interior of each compartment might 
dther be laid out in strips paralld to die borders, whh gravel walks between ; 
or devoted to graves widiout marks, laid out in the manner of a gardoi, with 
regular all^ of turf between. The manner of arranging these graves, and all 
the regulatioBs respecting them, should be mudi the same as those recom* 
mendcSi for cemeteries, p. 90. 

In Germany, it is customaiy, in some diurdiyards, to bury all die children 
under a certain i^e, who are not to have grave-marks, in a compartment by 
themselves ; not <mly because the waste of ground occasioned by placing 
large and small graves together is dins avoided, but because it is found that^ 
in the case of children, &e ground may be used again much sooner than the 
ground in which adults have been buried. But we do not think it necessary 
to recommend such a practice for Britxun, where dmrchyards are, or may b^ 
increased in sixe with die increase of population ; and where it is desirable 
that no grave should be opened after it has once been filled. 

On the Continent, as well as in many parts of Britain, die extent of the 
churdiyard in country parishes remains the same as it was several centuries 
ago; the consequence of which is, that, in districts where the population has 
increased, the graves are crowded tog^er so as to obliterate one another, 
and the ground rmsed considerably above the surrounding surface, as wdl as 
above the floor of the church. Every time a grave is dug in such church- 
yards a great number of bones are dirown up ; which are deposated in the first 
instance in the charnel-house, and, in many cases at least, sold afterwards to 
bone collectors, who ship them to Britain, along with the bones of quadru-^ 
peds, to be crushed for manure. (See Gard. Mag. for 1842, p. 54!6.) 

Fig. 54^ is the ground plan of a churchyard laid out agreeably to the 
forgoing principles; and^. 53. is an isometrical view, supposing the trees to 
have be^ ten or twelve years planted, and some of the gravestones and tombs 
to have been erected. The churdiyard is of small size, and is adapted for an 
agricuUural parish, where the minority of the inhabitants are in moderately 
good drcumstances, and whence it is supposed the superfluous popuiatioii 
will mi^te to the towns, and leave the number of permanent inhabitants 
comparadvely stationary. There is only one entrance to the chui^hyard, at 4 
{fig, 54.}, over which there is an archway for the protection of persons waiting 
dunng lain or snow. The walk is 8 ft. broad, and proceeds direct to the st^s 



COUNTBT CHTJRCHTAEDS. 



92 ON LATJKG OUT CEHETEBIES. 

S, which ascend totbe platfomi on which the church Btanda. The circum- 
ititial walk (c) w 6 ft. wide, with a border for tombs and gravestone^ on 
each aide, 12 ft. wide. There is also hd inner walli (d) of the same width, 
between which and the platTomi on which the church stands there is another 
18 ft. broad for tombs. The s^ace for ^ves without murks lies on each side 
of the walli e, and is in 14 divisions, with room in each for 2i graves. Each 
of these divisions is separated by a grass path 2 ft. wide. The two surround- 
ing borders, intended for tombs, are planted with trees SO fl. apart. At the 
angles (ff\ these trees are cedars of Lebanon ; at the main entrance {g g)t 
they are yew trees ; and the remainder of the trees are difierent species of 
thorns (Cratie'gus) (A), and evergreen cypresses (i), alternately; exctmt 
opposite to the side entrances to the platform, and at the angles attaining the 
cedars, where there are yew trees marked k k k k. Whatever tree is* in- 
troduced on one side of the walk, the same sort is also planted on the other ; 
for the sake of preserving uniformity in the perBpective, The nuniber of trees 
wanted for this churchyard will be 8 cedars of Lebanon, 20 yews, SB cy- 
presses, and 32 plants of Cratee'gus. The latter may be of the following 16 
species or varietjes : — 

C. coccinea. C. Aiama. 

C. c. corSUina, C. Oxyac4ntha rosea. 

C. punctata. C. O. multiplex (ildre pleoo). 

C. CriiE-g&IIi. C, O. mehmoc&rpa. 

C. C. 'alicifolia. C. O. prK'cox. 

C. orientalis (odoratlssima). C. glBndul6sa, 

C. tanacetifolia. C. heteroph^lla. 

C. t. Celwdna, C. flava. 

Half the yews maybe of the uptight Irish variety ; but the cypresses should 
be all of the common upright-growing iiind. In many parts of England, and 
generally in Scotland, the climate is loo severe for the cypress ; but in all 
Bucb places the Irish yew, Irish juniper, Swedish juniper, weeping Nepal 
juniper (Juniperus reciirva), the upright-growing variety of the Oriental arbor 
vitfe, or the J^nus Cembra, may be substituted. The common holly is also 
not a bad substitute; and, if deciduous cypress-like trees were required, we 
know of none more suitable than the Querciis pcdunculata fastigiata and the 
Ci^t^e'gus Oxyac^nlha strfcia. 

The parties wishing to bury in the borders are not to be considered as 
obliged to erect tombs of any sort, or even to enclose the spot which they 
have purchased with an u'on railing ; all that they will be held under obliga- 
tion to do will be, to confine tbeir operations within the limits of the paral- 
leloeram which they may purchase (and which may be either single, as shown 

iG plan at ', or double, as at u), and the four corners of which will be 



indicated by four stones let into the soil at the expense of the parish. The 
party purchasing the ground may erect any description of gravestone, tomb, 
statue, or monument, he chooses within it; or he may leave it in naked turf, 
which will be mown or clipped at the expense of the parish i or he may plant 
it with shrubs and flowers, in which case he must keep it in repair himself. 
We have suggested the idea of not rendering it compulsory to erect tombs 
or iron railings, in order that we may not seem to exclude those who 
cannot afford the expense of such memorials, from purchasing a grave to hold 
in perpetuity. A poor man may be willing to afford the pnce of a erave, in 
order to preserve the remains of his family from being disturbed ; though he 
might not be able to afford the farther expense of decorating it, by setting 
up a gravestone or erecting a tomb. 

T/ie Church shown in tlie figures is on what is supposed to be an improved 
design, suggested by an architect in the Architecluml Magazine ; and it differs 
fl-om the ordinary plan of churches in the manner of the entrances, and also 
in the general form being nearer that of a square than is usual. The author 
of this plan adopts it as a principle, " that the point in the outer walls from 
wbifdi each pew, and each class of pews, can be gained by the shortest pos- 



COUNTRY CHURCHYARDS. 






" 


m* 


» 




fi 


a 




t* 


* 




9i 


9 




b 


sf 


, 


i;^ 


? 

M 
i 






i 




c 



Fig. M. ammi Piatt t/'Clmreliti'rdc 



94 ON LAYING OUT CEMETERIES. 

sible distance, is the best situation for an entrance ; and for the following 
reason : that a person entering a church after the congre^tion has partly 
assembled, or, as frequently happens, after service is commenced, may gain 
his sitting as soon as possible, and avoid at least one half the disturbance 
otherwise created, by havine only half the length of an aisle to traverse." 
With respect to the general rorm, this architect considers " that plan the best 
which concentrates the greatest number of benches or pews within a given 
distance of the preacher ; and hence he prefers a square to a parallelogram." 
He adds : ** Never let the inner entrance door of a church open under a 
gallery, or the effect of the interior of the church will be irrecoverably lost. 
If you will have western entrances and western galleries, contrive to have 
porches or cloisters, so as to take you to the gallery front before you enter the 
body of the church." (Arch. Mag,, iv. p. 568.} The ground plan in^. 64. 
is made in accordance with these principles : // are uie entrance porches; 
m m, staircases, from which the body of the church is entered through lobbies 
at n. The inner lobbies are formed by two pairs of folding doors, with a 
space between, equal to the thickness of the walls of the towers which con-* 
tain the stairs. The inner doors of the lobbies may be glazed with stained 
or painted glass. If the body of the church be fitted up with benches, the 
effect would harmonise better with this style of architecture ; and, in the 
opinion of several clergymen with whom we are acquainted, this arrangement 
would be more suitable to the spirit of Christianity, according to which all 
are eaual in the sight of God. It is worthy of remark, that in the Russian 
churches there are no benches or seats of any kind whatever, and nothii^ to 
fpevent the meanest slave from standing by the side of the highest noble, 
or even of the emperor himself. The portion of the sittings mailed o o, to 
the right and left of the pulpit, our architect considers should be free. The 
communion table is to be placed at^, the pulpit at q, and the reading-desk at 
r, " The vestry and singers' seats (s) should be divided from the body of 
the church by a pierced screen, finished upon the same level with the gallery 
fronts ; and above this screen should be a niche and canopy to the pulpit, de- 
signed as much as possible to improve the sound." (lb., p. 571.) Whoever 
wishes to enter into farther detail on the subject of churches, and to see 
plans and elevations on a large scale of the one shown in jf!g. 53., may con- 
sult the Architectural Magazine, vol. ii. p. 393., vol. iv. p. 237. and p. 566., 
and vol. v. p. 223. 

The Parionage House and Grounds will, in general, be most conveniently 
situated adjoining the church and churchyard ; and the church will always 
form a most appropriate object in the principal view from the parsonage. The 
churchyard, also, may sometimes be seen as a part of the view.; and at other 
times it may be so united with the grounds of the parsonage as almost to 
seem a continuation of them. In the greater number of situations, however, 
we believe the clergyman will prefer having his residence at a short distance 
from the churchyard ; not only from the idea that there may be mephitic ex- 
halations from it (especially in churchyards where the graves are crowded 
pell-mell together^ and opened without any regular system}, but also because 
familiarity with the interments taking place in it may lessen the sentiment of 
solemnity excited by them in his children and domestics, and may obtrude 
that expression more powerfully than is desirable upon the minds of strangers 
who may be his guests. Another and a decisive reason why the church and 
churchyard shomd generally stand alone is, that the expression of solemnity 
is heightened by this circumstance. Solitariness is unquestionably a powerAu 
ingredient in all feelings which are the opposite to those of gaiety; and, (Hi 
this account, the church and churchyard should stand completely isolated, 
and, as we have said before, they should, if possible, be so elevated as to be 
seen from all the surrounding country. (See the subject of Parsonage Houses 
treated of in the Suburban Gardener, p. 607. to p. 615. ; in which the plan of 
Dunchurcb Vicarage, laid out from our designs in 1837, is given as an example 
of the pleasure-grounds of a parsonage united with the scenery of an ad- 
joining-churchyard.) 



TREES, SHRUBS, AND HERBACEOUS PLANTS. 95 



IX* Lists op Treks, Shrubs, apid perennial herbaceous Plants, 

ADAPTED FOR CEMETERIES AND CHURCHYARDS. 

In the following selections we have chiefly included plants that are quite 
hardy, and that, when once properly planted and established, will grow in turf 
or other firm soil without having the surface annually dug, or kept clear of 
weeds or grass^ We have avoided most of the species of such genera as 
Cytisus, Genista, Cblutea, Ribes, Rdaa, &c., which not only require dug soil, 
but are short-lived, or are very apt to die oC To those who do not require 
such lists for cemeteries or churchyards, they will be useful as indicating the 
priocipal permanent trees and shrubs adapted for pleasure-grounds, which are 
sold in British nurseries. The number might have been increased, but we 
have judged it best to be comparatively select. 

Our classification of the trees and shrubs is founded on their different degrees 
of suitableness for burial-g^rounds ; and we have given references to our Arbore* 
turn BrUanmcum, where portraits of the entire tree, and copious details, bo- 
tanical, descriptive, historical, geographical, &c., will be found ; and to the 
JSttct/dopisdia of Trees and Shrubs, which is an abridgement of that work, in 
which engravings will be found of ever}' species, and such details as are neces- 
sary as guides to their culture, management, and uses in plantations. We have 
added after each species the height which it generally attains in the climate of 
London, and the price of good plants in' th& London nurseries when one 
plant only is ordered ; when several are wanted, of course thtf price will be 
lower, according to the number. We can vouch fOr their being obtained 
correct to the names, and at the prices mentioned, at the Fulhani Nursery. 

EVERGREEN TREEa 

Evergreen Trees with Needle Leaves^ and the Branches fastigiate and vertical, 

Cupressus sempervirens Enci/c. of Trees and Shrubs p. 1073. Jrb. Brit, 

p. 2464., the Italian Cypress. Height 30 — 40 ft. Is, 6d, The best of 

aU trees for a cemetery, but not suited for exposed situations. 
Taxus bacckta fastimata E, of T. p. 939. A, B, p. 206(5., the Irish Yew. 

Height 20 — 30 ft. 2s, 6d, The second best cemetery tree, and quite 

hardy. 
TUxus baccata erecta E. of T. p. 940. A. B, p. 2066., the upright Yew. 

2#. 6d. Third best, 
t/unfperus communis su^cica E, of T, p. lOSl, A, B, p. 2489., the Swedish 

Juniper. Height 10 — 12 ft. 1^. 6d, Equally good with the Irish yew, 

except that it is of a lighter colour. 
Juniper us communis hibernica E, of T, p. 1082., the Irish Juniper. Height 

6 — 8 ft. 1*. 6d, Equal to the Swedish juniper. 
•Tunfperus excelsa E,ofT p. 1088. A, B, p. 2503., the tall Juniper. Height 

20 — ^30 ft. 10*. 6rf. This promises to be an excellent cemetery tree, in 

climates suitable for the Cupressus sempervirens. 

Evergreen Trees with Needle Leaves, of narrow conical Foi^ns, the Branches 
' horiionthl. 

Cbpressus' sempervirens hortzontalis E, of T, p. 1073. -4. -S. p. 2465., the 

spreading Cypress. Height 30 — 40 fl. . \s,Qd, 
Junfperusvirginiana E, ofT, p. 1084, A, B. p; 2495., the red* Cedar. Height 

30-^40 ft. \s, 6rf. Suitable, and very hardy, 
Jbnlperus'phoenicea E,ofTp» 1087. A,B, p. 2501., the Phoenician Juniper. 

Height 10—20 fl. 2*: 6</. . 

Jimfperus chinensis E, of T, p. 1809. A. B, p. 2505., the Chinese JuDij)er. 

Height 15— 20 fl. 2*. 6rf. 



96 ON LAYING OUT CEMETEBIE8. 

Thiya occidentalis E. of T. p. 1068. A. B. p. 2454., the American ArlxMr 

Vitae. Height 40— 50 ft. 1*. 6rf. 
TTiiija orientalis E. of T, p. 1070. A, B, p. 2459., the Chinese Arbor Vitae. 

Height 18 — 20 £ 2#. Qd, More suitable, and also hardier, than the 

preceding species. 

Evergreen Trees with Needle Leaves^ corneal in Shape, the Branches horizonta/y 
but tomewhat taller than those before enumerated^ 

A^bxes alba E, ofT. p. 1030. A. B. p. 2310, the vhite Spnice Fir. Height 

40-^50ft. 2*. 6rf. 
if bies nigra E.ofT. p. 1031. A, B. p. 2311., the black Spruce Fir. Height 

60^70ft. 2s. 6d, 
Picea balsamea E. of T. p. 1044. A. B. p. 2339., the Babn of Gilead, or 

American Silver Fir. Height 20—30 tt. Is. 6J. 
Picea pectinata stricta (Rhers) Gard. Mag^ 1843, p. 61., the upright Silver. 

Fir. 5*. 

Evergreen Trees with Needle Leaves, less conical in Shape, but peculiarly suitabie. 

fir Churchyards and Cemeteries. 

T^xus baccata E. of T. p. 939. X B, p. 2066., the common Yew. Height 
20 — 30 ft. \s. 6d. A very suitable cemetery tree where a spreading head 
is not an objection. 

T^xus baccata argentea, the Silver Yew. 2s, 6d. 

TsLXQS t)accaita aurea, the Golden Yew. 3s, 6d, 

AbieB canadensis E. ofT. p. 1035. A. B. p. 2322., the Hemlock Spruce Fir. 
Height 30—60 ft. 2r. 6^. 

Evergreen Trees with Needle Leaves, of conical Shape, the. Branches horizontals 

but of larger Chrowth &an the preceding Kinds., 

il^bies exc^lsa E. ofT. p. 1026. A, B. p. 2293., the common Spruce. Height 
60 — 80 ft. td. The cemetery tree of Sweden and Norway. The twigs 
are strewed over the corpse before the coffin lid is closed, and also over 
the floor of the room containing the corpse, and on the grave after the 
interment has been completed. The tree admits of being cut or clipped 
into any form. It is the principal tree in the large mountain cemetery at 
Rouen. (See Gard. Mag. for 1841, p. 291.) 

^^bies Smithwwa E. ofT. p. 1032. A. B. p. 2317., the Khu trow Spruce Fir. 
Height 50 ft. bs. 

i4'bies Douglastt E. of T. p. 1033. A. B. p. 2319., Douglas's Spruce Fir. 
Height 100— 180 ft. 10*. 6rf. 

i4^bies Menziesn E. of T. p. 1034. A. B. p. 2321., Menzies's Spruce Fir. 
5*. 

Picea pectinata E. ofT:^. 1037. A. B. p. 2329., the Comb-like-leaved Silver 
Fir. Hei^t 80— 100 ft. 1*. 

Picea cephalonica E. of T. p. 1039. A. B. p. 2325., the Mount Enos Fir. 
Height 50—60 ft. 2s. U. 

Picea Pinsdpo E. of T. p. 1041., the Pinsapo, or Malaga Silver Fir. Height 
60— 70 ft. bs. 

Phius Cembra E. of T. p. 1016. A. B. p. 2274., the Cembran Pine. Height 
50 — 80 ft. 2s. 6d. A slow-growing, narrow, conical tree ; very hardy ; and 
not unsuitable for small burying-grounds, when the Irish yew or Swedish 
juniper cannot be got. 



imim>itmimtmw^m 



TREES, SHRUBS, AND HERBACEOUS PLANTS. 97 

•Svergreen JS'eet with Needle Leave$^ ofcomctd Shapes, the Branches horizontal^ 
•but attaining a large Size, which nevertheleu admit of being cut in so as to form 
jiarrow conical Trees suitable Jbr large Cemeteries. 

Finns sylvestris JE. of T. p. 951. A, B.p. 2153., the Scotch Pine> or Scotch 
Fir. Height 60^100 ft. 6d. The tree of death and mourning in 
Russia is the pine, which may be called the Northern Cypress. The poor 
strew the coffin, at the time of exhibiting the corpse, with pine twigs ; 
and, at the funerals of the wealthy, the whole way from the house to the 
churchyard is thickly strewed with branches of the same tree. Hence 
those streets of Petersburg through which funerals frequently pass are 
almost always covered with this sign of mourning. (Kohfs Russia, vol, i. 
p. 214.) The badge of the Highland clan M'Gr^or. 

Pinus Larlcio E, of T, p. 956. A. B, p. 2200., the Corsican, or Larch, Pine. 
Height 60—150 ft. 1*. 6rf. 

Pinus austriaca E,ofT, p. 958. A, B. p. 2205., the Austrian, or Black, Pine. 
Height 60 — 80 ft. 6^. Dark foliage, very hardy, and bears cutting in. 

Pinus taurica E, of T, p. 959. A. B. p. 2206., the Tartarian Pine. Height 
60 — 70 ft. 2*. 6rf. A dark-foliaged tree, very hardy, and admitting of 
being clipped or cut into narrow conical forms. Altogether the noblest 
• of the European pines. 

Pinus iStrdbus E, of T. p. 1018. A. B, p. 2280., the Weymouth Pine. Height 
50—80 ft. 9rf. 

Cedrus Libani E. of T, p. 1057. A. B. p. 2402., the Cedar of Lebanon. 
Height 50—80 ft. 5*. 

Cedrus Deoddra £. of T. p. 1059. A. B. p. 2428., the Deodar, or Indian 
Cedar. Height 50—100 ft. Is. 6rf. 

* Of the same Kind^ attaining a less Size. 

Pinus Pfnea E, of T. p. 965. A, B, p. 2224., -the Stone Pine. Height 

15 — 20 ft. 2s. 6d. More frequently seen as a bush than as a tree, but 

very ornamental, and its associations are classical. 
Pinus inops E. of T, p. 970. A. B. p. 2192., the Jersey, or poor. Pine. 

Height 40—50 ft. 2s. 6d. 
Pinus mitis E. ofT. p. 974. A. B. p. 2195., the soft-leaved, or yellow. Pine. 

Height 50—60 ft. 2s. dd. 
Pinus pumilio E. ofT. p. 955. A. B. p. 2186., the dwarf, or Mountain, Pine. 

Height 10 — 20 ft. 2s. 6rf. The foliage dark, and the tree very hardy, 

Bnd suitable for a burial -ground of limited extent. 

Evergreen Tree with Cfiaff-Uke }Leaves, of a singular Appearance, and well 

adapted for Churchyards and Cemeteries. 

Araucaria imbricata E. ofT. p. 1062. A. B. p. 2432., the Chili Pine. Height 
50 — 100 ft. 5*. A very singular tree, of slow growth, and, as it is certain 
of attracting general attention, when planted in a cemetery, it ought to be 
surrounded with a wire fence for five or six years to protect it from 
accidental injury. 

Evergreen TVees with Needle Leaves and pendent Branches, peculiarly well 
adapted for being used in Cemeteries so as to droop over Monuments, 

Juniperus reciirva E. of T. p. 1089. A. B. p. 2504., the recurved Nepal 
Juniper. Height 5—10 ft. 2s. 6d. A weeping tree, and on that account 
peculiarly suitable for cemeteries. Very hardy. 

«/uniperus virginiana pendula (Rivers) Gard. Mag. for 1843, p. 61., the pen- 
dulous red Cedar. Hitherto rare. lOs^ 



98 ON LATIKG OUT CEMETERIES. 

Janipemn communis p^ndula (Rivers) Gard^ Mag, for 1843, p. 60., the pen- 
dulous common Juniper. Rare. 5f . 

Thuja p^dula E, of T. p. 1071. A, 27. p. 2461., the drooping Arbor Vitae. 
Sli. Said to be a hybrid between the red cedar and the Occidental arbor 
vitas, rmsed by accident in Messrs. Loddiges's nursery. There is a fine 
specimen in the gardens at Kew. Rare, but quite hardy. 

The foregoing kinds may all be considered as cemetery trecB, par exceUen^e, 
Those which follow are for the sake of variety in cemetery gardens of con- 
siderable extent, say fifty acres, and for cemetery arboretums. 

Evergreen TVeet with broad Leaves^ of small SSze and narrow conical Forms^ 

which may be used in Cemeteries, 

C<6rasu8 Laurocerasus strfcta (Rivers), Gard, Mag. 1843, p. 57., the up- 
right-growing common Laurel, 2s. 6d. 

Quercus T^lex Fordn, Ford's Evergreen Oak. ^. 6d. A very handsome low tree 
or shrub, and one of the best broad-leaved evergreens for a cemetery. 

* Of less fastigiate Forms, and small Size. 

^xus balearica E. ofT. p. 704. A. B. p. 1341., the Minorca Box. Height 
15— 20 ft. 1*. erf. 

j&uxus sempervirens arborescens E. of T. p. 703. A. B. p. 1333., the Tree 
Box. Height 15—30 ft. 9d. The badge of the Highland clan Mac- 
intosh. 

J^iixus sempervirens variegata. 6i/. The badge of the clan Macpherson. 

** Of the same Kind, less f&stigiate, and of larger Size. 

/Mex ^quifolium E. of T. p. 157. A. B. p. 505., the common Holly. 

Height 20 — 30 ft. Qd. Decidedly the best broad-leaved evergreen 

tree for a cemetery, 
/lex balearica E. of T. p. 160. A. B. p. 516., the Minorca Holly. Height 

10— 20 ft. 2*. 6flf. 
/lex opaca E. of T. p. 160. A. B. p. 516., the opaque-leaved, or American, 

Holly. Height 10—20 ft. 3*. 6rf. 
Cerasus Laurocerasus E. ofT. p. 295. A.B. p. 716., the common Laurel. 

Height 6—20 ft. 6rf. 
r^rasus lusit&nica E. of T. p. 294. A. B. p. 714., the Portugal Laurel. 

Height 10— 20 ft. 1*. 6rf. 
Qu^rcus /Mex E. of T. p. 880. A. B. p. 1899., the common Evergreen 

Oak. Height 15 — 30 ft. Several varieties. From 2s, to 5*. each. 
Quercus 5uber E. of T. p. 884. A. B. p. 1800. and 1911., the Cork Tree. 

Height 20—30 ft. 2s. 6d. 
Qu^rcus Tumeri E. of T, p. 885. A. B. p. 1922., Turner's Oak. Height 

40—50 ft. 2s. 6d. 

Evergreen Trees with broad Leaves and Shoots more or less pendulous^ adapted 

for being planted singly to hang over Graves. 

Cerasus Laurocerasus colchica (Rivers) Gard. Mag. 1843, p. 57., the pen- 
dulous-branched common Laurel. 6s. 

/'lex ilquifolium pendulum E. of T. p. 1113., the drooping-branched com- 
mon Holly. Rare ; not yet to be purchased in the nurseries ; but capable 
of being easily and extensively propagated by budding on the conunon 
holly. The badge of the clan Drummond. 

Qu^rcus Cerris fulhamensis pendula (Rivers) Gard. Mag. 1843, p. 59., the 
weeping Fulham Oak. 

Qu^rcus /lex pendula, the drooping-branched Evergreen Oak. 



TREES, SHRUBS, AND HERBACEOUS PLANTS. 



99 



DECIDUOUS TREES. 

Deddiwus Needle^leaved Trees of fasti^ate Shapes^ which may be used in 

Churchyards, 

Larix americana E, of T, p, 1056, A, B, p. 2399., the American Larch. 

Height 80— 100 ft. 1*. 
Xarix europae^a communis E, of T, p. 1054?. A. B, p. 2350., the common 

Larch. Height 80 — 100 ft. 6rf. 
Taxddium distichum E, of T, p. 1078. A, B. p. 2481., the deciduous 

Cypress. Height 50—80 ft. 2s. ed. 

* With pendulous Branches. 

Zrarix europse'a pendula E. of T. p. 1054. A, B, p. 2350., the weepuig 

Larch. Is, hd, 
Taxodium distichum pendulum E, of T, p. 1078. A, B, p. 2481., the 

weeping deciduous Cypress. 5s. 

Deciduous broad-leaved Trees offastig^te Forms and small Size. 

Ameldnchier fl6rida E. of T. p. 414. A, B. p. 876., the flowery Amelanchier. 

Height 10—20 ft. 2s. 6d. 
Ameldnchier sangulnea E, of T. p. 413. A. B. p. 875., the blood-coloured 

Amelanchier. Height 10—20 ft. 2s. 6d. 
Cotoneaster acuminata E, of T. p. 409. A. B. p. 872., the acuminated- 

leaved Cotoneaster. Height 10 — 15 ft. 1*. 6d. 
Cratae^gus Oxyacantha strfcta E. of T. p. 375. A. B. p. 832., the upright 

Hawthorn. 2*. Qd. Very hardy, and very suitable for a cemetery where 

deciduous trees are admitted. 
Cratse'mis tanacetifblia E. of T, p. 372. A. B. p. 828., the Tansy-leaved 

Thorn. Height 20— 30 ft. 2s. 6d. 
Gymnocladus canadensis E. of T. p. 255. A. B. p. 656., the Kentucky 

Coffee Tree. Height 30—60 ft. 2s. 6d. 

* Of larger Size. 

Pdpulus balsamifera E. of T. p. 830. A. B, p. 1673., the Balsam-bearing 
Poplar. Height 40 — ^50 ft. 1*. 

Populus fastigiata E. of T. p. 827. A. B. 1660., the Lombardy Poplar. 
Height 50—150 ft. 3d. 

Quercus pedunculata fastigikta E. of T. p. 849. A. B. p. 1731., the py- 
ramidal Oak. 3*. 6d. Very suitable from its decidedly fastigiate mode 
of growth, and narrow conical shape. The common oak, of which this 
is a variety, is the badge of the clan Cameron. 

Ulmua montana fastigiata E. of T, p. 721. A. B. p. 1398., the fastigiate 
Elm. \s. 6d. 

Deciduous low Trees tuvtfi round compact Heads. 

Acer O'palus E. of T. p. 89. A. B. p. 421., the Opal, or Italian, Maple. 

Height 8—12 tt. is.6d. 
iiVer monspessulanum E. ofT. p. 92. A. B. p. 427., the Montpelier Maple; 

Height 15— 40 ft. \s.Qd. 
A^c&r creticum E. of T. p. 94, A, B. p. 430., the Cretan Maple. Height 

10—30 ft. 2s. 6d. 
Cerasus Mahdleb E. of T. p. 288. A. B. p. 707., the perfumed Cherry Tree. 

Height 10—20 ft. 2s. 6d. 
Liquidambar imberbe E. of T p. 933. A. B. p. 2053., the beardless 



Liquidambar. Height 10- 



H 2 



}00 ON LAYIXG OUT CEMETEBIES. 

CmtM europae'a E, of T, p. 651. A. B. p. 184U the European flowering 

Ash. Height 20— 30 ft. 2s. M. 
Cyatrya vulgaris E. of T. p. 920. A. B. p. 2015., the Hop Hornbeam. 

Height 30—40 ft. U. 
P^rus A^nsL E. of T. p. 432. A. B, p. 910., the White Beam Tree. 1*. 6rf. 
Pyrus aucuparia E, ofT. p. 439. A. B, p. 916., the Mountain Ash. Hdght 

20—30 ft. 6d. The badge of the clan M'Lachlan. 

Deciduous Drees of small ISze, with Heads more or lets irregular^ most of 
which are remarkable for the Beauty of their Flowers or Fruit. 

if cer camp^stre E. of T. p. 93. A. B, p. 428., the Field Maple. Height 

15—30 ft. 1*. 
if cer spicatum E. of T. p. 80. A. B. p. 406., the spike-flowered Maple. 

Height 18—20 ft. 1#. 6rf. 
if cer striatum E. of T. p. 81. A^ B. p. 407., the striped -barked Maple. 

Height 10— 20 ft. \s. 6d. 
A'cer tataricum E. of T. p. 80. A. B, p. 406., the Tartarian Maple. Height 

20— 30 ft. 1#. 6rf. 
ilm^gdalus communis E. of T. p. 263. A. B. p. 674., the common Almond 

Tree. Height 20—30 ft. 2s. 6d. 
ilm^gdalus communis macrocarpa E. of T. p. 264. A. B. p. 675., the large- 
flowered Almond. 2s. 6d. 
ilrmeniaca vulgaris E. of T. p. 267. A. B. p. 682., the common Apricot 

Tree. Height 20—30 ft. 2s. 6d. 
B6tulA nigra E. of T. p. 843. A. B, p. 1710., the black Birch. Height 

60—70 ft. 
^^tula^pulifolia E. of T. p. 841. A. B. p. 1707., the Poplar-leaved Birch. 

Is. 6d, 
J^etula />opulif61ia laciniata E. of T. p. 841. A. B. p. 1707., the cut-leaved 

Poplar Birch. \s. 6d. 
Broussonetia papyrifera E, of T. p. 710. A. B. p. 1361., the Paper Mul- 
berry. Height 10—20 ft. 1*. 6rf. 
Caragdna arborescens E. of T. p. 237. A. B. p. 629., the Siberian Pea 

Tree. Height 15— 20 ft. l*.6rf. 
Cerasus Padus E. of T. p. 289. A. B. p. 709., the Bird- Cherry Tree. 

Height 1 2—40 ft. 9d. 
Ci6ra8us virginiana E. of T. p. 291. A, B. p. 710., the Virginian Bird- 
Cherry Tree. Height 30—40 ft. \s. Sd. 
Cercis <Sfiiiqu&strum E. of T. p. 257. A. B. p. 657., the common Judas 

Tree. Height 20 — 30 ft. \s. 6d. Abundant in the Protestant cemetery 

at Lisbon, and in the Turkish cemeteries at Constantinople. (Yacht 

VoyagCy vol. i. p. 20. and p. 37.^ 
C6rylus Columa E. of T. p. 923. A. B. p. 2029., the Constantinople Hazel, 

Height 50—60 ft. 2s. 6d. 
Cratae'gus E. of T. p. 352. A. B. p. 813., the Thorn. Fifty species, all 

beautiftil. 2s. 6d. each. 
Cydonia vulgaris E. of T. p. 450. A. B, p. 929., the common Quince Tree. 

Height 15— 20 ft. 2s. 6d. 
Cytisus alpinus E. of T. p. 215. A. B. p. 591., the Alpine, or Scotcb> 

Laburnum. Height 20 — 30 ft. is. 6d, 
Cytisus i>aburnum E. of T. p. 214. A. B, p. 590., the common Laburnum. 

Height 20 ft. 1*. 
Diospyros i>6tus E. of T. p. 625. A. B. p. 1194., the European Lotus, or 

common Date Plum. Height 20 — 30 ft, 2s. ed. 
E\a^igau9 hort^nsis E. of T. p. 696. A. B. p. 1321., the garden Elseagnus, 

Oleaster, or Wild Olive Tree. Height 15—20 ft. 1*. 6rf. 
Oleditschta sinensis E. of T. p. 252. A. B. p. 654., the Chinese Gleditschia, 

Height 30—50 ft. 2s. M. 



TBEES> €HBUBS^ AND HERBACEOUS PLANTS. lOl 

Hslesia tetraptera E, of T, p. 620. A. B. p. 1190., the common Snowdro|) 

Tree. Height 15—30 ft. 2*. 6rf. 
l/lppophae Rhamndides femina E. of T. p. 698. A, B. p. 1324., the femald 

Sea Buckthorn. Height 15—20 ft. Is. ed. 
Kdlreuteria paniculata E, of T, p. 135. A. B. p. 475., the panicled-flower-^ 

in^ Kolreuteria. Height 20— -40 ft. Is, 6d, 
Magnolia acuminata E, of T, p. 29. A, B, p. 273., the pointed-leaved Mag-» 

nolia. Height 30—50 ft. 6s. 
ilfespilus germ&nica E, of T, p. 415. A, B. p. 877., the common Medlar. 

2s. 6d. 
iliespilus Smlthtt £. of T. p. 416. A. B. p. 878., Smith's Medlar. Height 

15—20 ft. 2s. 6d. 
Mbrus nigra E. of T. p. 706. A. B. p. 1343. 3*. ed. ; and M. &lba E. of T. 

p. 707. A. B. p. 1348. Is. ; the common-fruited and white-fruited Mul- 
berry Tree. Height 20—30 ft. 
Ptelea trifoliata E. of T. p. 144. A. B. p. 489., the three-leafleted Ptelea, 

or shrubby Trefoil. Height 6—10 ft. 1*. 6rf. 
Pyrus E. ofT. p. 417. A. B. p. 879., the Pear Tree. Ten species. 2s. ed. 
Quercus -^E'gilops E. ofT. p« 860. A. B. p. 1861., the great prickly-cupped 

Oak. Height 20—50 ft. 2j. ed. 
Quercus ^sculus E. ofT. p. 853. A. B. p. 1844., the Italian Oak. Height 

20—30 ft. 2s. ed. 
jSlambucus nigra laciniata E. of T. p. 513. A. B. p. 1027., the common, or 

black-fruited. Elder. Is. 
jSlarabucus racemosa E. of T. p. 515. A. B. p. 1031., the racemose-flowered 

Elder. Height 10— 12 ft. Is.ed. 
Sophora japonica E. ofT. p. 196. A. B. p. 563., the Japan Sophora. Height 

40—50 ft. 1*. ed. 
Virgflia liitea E. of T. p. 198. A. B. p. 565., the yellow-wooded Virgilia. 

Height 10—20 ft.' 5s. 

Dedduous Trees of larger Size, remarkable fir the Beauty of their Flowers, or 

the Singularity or Frcigrance of their Leaves. 

A^cer Pseudo-Platanus purpurea E. of T. p. 86. A. B. p. 415., the purple- 
leaved Sycamore Maple. If. The maple is the badge of the clan 

Oliphant. 
./S^sculus rubicunda E. of T. p. 126. A. B. p. 467., the reddish-flowered 

Horsechestnut. Height 20—30 ft. 2s. ed. 
Aildntus glandulosa E. of T. p. 145. A. B. p. 490., the glandulous-leaved 

Ailanto. Height 50— 60 ft. Is.ed. 
A^nus cordifolia E. of T. p. 835. A. B. p. 1689., the heart-leaved Alder. 

Height 15—20 ft. \s. ed. 
^Inus incana E. of T. p. 834. A. B. p. 1687., the hoary-leaved Alder. Height 

50—70 ft. 1*. ed. 
Celtis australis E. of T. p. 727. A. B. p. 1414., the European Nettle Tree. 

Height 30—40 ft. 2s. ed. 
Fagas sylv&tica purpurea E. ofT. p. 905. A. B. p. 1950., the common purple 

Beech. 2s. ed. 
Liquid&mbar Styraciflua E. of T. d. 932. A. B. p. 2049., the Sweet-Gum 

Liquidambar. Height 30 — 50 ft. Is. ed. 
Liriodendron Tuliplfera E. of T. p. 36. A. B. p. 284., the Tulip Tree. Height 

50—90 ft. 2s. ed. 
Madura aurantiaca E. of T. p. 711. A. B. p. 1362., the Osage Orange. Height 

30—60 ft. 3*. ed. 
Kegundo /raxinifolium E. of T. p. 122. A. B. p. 460., the Ash-leaved Ne- 

gundo. Height 15 — 30 ft. \s. 
Pavia discolor E. of T. p. 133. A. B. p. 472., the two-coloured-flowered 

Pavia. Height 3—10 ft. 2s. ed. 

H 3 



102 OH LATIK6 OUT CEMETERIES. 

TMa £kfB B. cfT. p. 130. A. B. p. 471., the ydlow-flowered Pavia. Height 

30-40ft. \s.9d. 
VSamaa Bichaidi E. of T. p. 726. A. B. p. 1409., RkhanTs Planeia. Height 

50—70 ft. If. 6d. 
PUUanus orientalis E, of T. p. 928. A. B. p. 2033., the Oriental Plane. 

Height 60— 80 ft. \s,6d, 
P6puliu balsamifera E. of T. p. 830. A. B. p. 1673., the Balsam-bearing 

Poplar. Height 40—50 ft. 1«. 
QuercuB coccmea E. o/T. p. 869. A. B. p. 1879., the Scariet Oak. Heigjbt 

80 ft. li. 6dL 
Qaercas pal^stris E. of T, p. 872. A. B. p. 1887., the Blarsh, ix Pin, Oak. 

Height 80ft. ^s.6d. 
Quercus rubra E, of T. p. 868. A, B. p. 1877., the red, or Champion, Oak. 

Hei^t 80—90 ft. 
Robintti Fseud-ilcacia E. cf T, p. 233. A. B, p. 609., the common Robinia, 

or fiUse Acada. Height 70—80 ft. Is. 
Robinia yiscosa E. of T, p. 235. A, B, p. 626., the chunmy-barited Robinia. 

Height 15—20 ft. 2t. 6d. 
Salisburia odiantifolia E, of T. p. 945. A. B, p. 2094., the Blaiden-hair-leayed 
^ Salisburia. Height 60— 80 ft. 3f . 6^^. 
iSSlix aurita E, ofT. p. 776. A, B, p. 1560., the round-eared Sallow, or Willow. 

Is. 6d, The badge of the clan Cumming. 
iSaiiz caprea E. of T. p. 776. A. B. p. 1561., the Goat Sallow, or Willow. 

Height 15—30 ft. Is. 6d. 
5alix pent^ndra E. of T. p. 754. A. B. p. 1503., the Sweet Willow, or Bay- 
leaved Willow. Height 18—20 ft. li. 6rf. 
iSalix Titellina E. ofT. p. 763. A. B. p. 1528., the yellow Willow, or Golden 

Osier. Height 30—50 ft. Is. Qd. 

Decidtums Trees ttrUh pendulous Branches ^ adapted for being planted singly hy 
MonumerdSy or over Graves as Substitutes for Monuments (Trauerbdume^ 
or Trees of Sorrow^ Ger.). 

ilm^gdalus Persica p6ndula (^Rivers) G, M. 1843, p. 57., the pendulous- 
branched Peach. 

^etula &lba pendula E. ofT.p. 838. A. B. p. 1691., the weeping Birch. Is. 
The birch is the bac^e of the clan Buchanan. 

Cerasus Padus bracteosa E. of T. p. 290. A. B. p. 702., the bracteolate 
weeping Bird-Cherry. Is. 6d. 

Cerasus Pkdus pendula {Rivers) G. M. 1843, p. 57., the weeping Bird-Cherry. 

Cerasus semperflorens E. of T. p. 281. A. B. p. 701., the ever-flowering 
Cherry Tree. Height 10—20 ft. \s. 6d. 

Cratae^gus Oxyadintha pendula E.ofT. p. 376. A. B. p. 832., the weeping 
Hawthorn. 

C^tisus i^ab(irnum pendulum E. ofT. p. 215. A. B. p. 590., the weeping La- 
burnum. 2s. hd. 

C^isus alpinus p^ndulus E. ofT. p. 216. A. B. p. 791., the weeping Scotch 
Laburnum. Height 20— n30 ft. 2s. 6d. 

Fhgas sylvatica pendula E. ofT. p. 906. A. B. p. 1876., the weeping Beech. 
3s. 6d. 

Fagua sylvatica purpurea pendula (Rivers) G. M. 1843, p. 60., the purple 
weeping Beech. 

JVaxinus excelsior pendula E, of T. p. 641. A. B. p. 1214., the weeping 
Ash. 3f . 6d. 

JFlr&xinus /entiscifolia pendula E. of T. p. 645. A. B. p. 1231., the weeping 
Lentiscus-leaved Ash. 3s. Qd. 

Pavia riibra pendula, the weeping Horsechestnut. 2s. 6d. 

P6pulus tremula pendula E. of T. p. 822. A. B. p. 1509., the weeping 
Poplar. Is, 6d. The poplar is the badge of the clan Ferguson. 



TBEES^ SHBUBS^ AND HEBBACEOUS PLANTS. 103 

PJTQS spi^ria p^dula E. of T, p. 445. A. B, p. 925*, the spurious Service 

Tree. Height 10—12 ft. 2#. 6d. 
Quercus pedunculata pendula E, of T. p. 849. A, B, p. 1731., the weeping 

Oak. 
Robinia Pseiid-ilcacia pendula E. of T. p. 234. A B. p. 609. Gard. Mag, 

1843, p. ^.^ the false Acacia. 
Sb&s, babylonica E. of T. p. 757. A, B, p. 1507., the weeping Willow. 

Height 30—50 ft. 1*. . 
5Mix americana pendula (^Rivers) Gard, Mag, 1843, p. 59., the American 

weeping Willow. 
Sophora ^aponicsk pendula E.ofT, p. 196. A.B, p. 563., the weeping Sophora. 

Height 30—40 ft. 10*. 6rf. 
Tilia ^ba pendula, the white Hungarian Lime. Bs. 6J. 
trimus montana pendula E, of T, p. 721. A. B, p. 1398., the weeping Elm. 

2s. 6d, 

EVERGREEN SHRUBS. 

Evergreen Shrubs with Needle Leaves, and the Plants of great Duration, all well 
adapted for Cemeteries where Shrubs are introduced. 

Oupressus ^hyoides E. of T. p. 1074. A. B. p. 2475., the white Cedar. 

Height 10— 15 ft. 2s. Qd. 
t/unlperus communis E. of T, p. 1081. A. B. p. 2489., the common Juniper. 

Height 3 — 5 ft. 1*. The badge of the clan Murray. 
Juniperus daurica E, of T. p. 1082. A. B, p. 2489., the Daiirian Juniper, 
t/imiperus Ox^cedrus E. of T. p. 1083. A.B. p. 2494., the brown-berried 

Juniper. Height 10 — 12 ft. 3s. 6d. 
Juniperus iSiabina E. of T. p. 1085. A. B. p. 2499., the common Savin. 

Height 7 — 8 ft. 1*. 6d. Several varieties. 
7%xus baccata microphjUa (Rivers} Gard. Mag. 1843, p. 60. 
Tixus canadensis E. of T. p. 942. A.B. p. 2093., the Canada, or North 

American, Yew. 3^. 6d. 

Evergreen Shrubs unth broad Leaves, and the Plants of great Duration. 

-4'rbutus ZPnedo E. ofT. p. 573. A.B. p. 1117., and several other species. 

From 6d, to 5*. The arbutus is the badge of the clan Ross. 
Aucuba japonica, E. 6f T. p. 511. A.B. p. 1026., the Japan Aucuba. Height 

6—10 ft. Is. ed. 
Berberis dulcis E. of T. p. 47. A, B. p. 305., the sweet-fruited Berberry. 

Height 2—5 ft. 1*. 6rf. 
Bxxxus sempervJrens wyrtifolia E. of T. p. 704. A. B. p. 1333., the Myrtle- 

leaved Box Tree 9(/ 
CoUetia horrida E. ofT. p. 176. A. B. p. 541., the bristly Colletia. Height 

3— 4 ft. 3*. 6d 
Cotone&ster iuxifolia E.of T. p. 411. A. B. p. 873., the Box-leaved Coto- 

neaster. \s. 6d. 
CVatae^gus Pyracantha E. ofT. p. 385. A. B. p. 844., the fiery Thorn. Height 

4—6 ft. 1*. 6d. 
Z>aphne Laureola E. of T. p. 688. A. B. p. 1309., the Spurge Laurel. Height 

o ' ' '■' re. Del. 
ZMiphne p6ntica E. of T. p. 688. A. B. p. 1310., the twin-flowered Spurge 

Laurel. Height 4 — 5 ft. Is. 6d. 
Qkrrya elliptica E. of T. p. 926. A. B. p. 2032., the elliptic-leaved Garrya. 

Height 8—10 ft. 2s. 6d. 
I^\ex i^quifolium EofT, p. 157. A. B. p. 505., the common Holly : most of 

the variegated sorts. Height 20 — 30 ft. 1*. to 5*. 
Zrigdstrum vulgare sempervirens E. ofT. p. 629. A. B. p. 1199., the evergreen 

Privet. M. 

H 4 



104 ON LAYING OUT CEMB' 

Phill^res raedia E. of T. p. <]32. A. B. p. ISO^ 

Height 10— 15 ft. 2t.Gd. 
Quercusliybrida nana E. of T. p. 886. A. B. p. 
AhfimnuB ..Jlatemus £. of T. p.l71. A. B. p. 

10—90 ft. I». 6rf. 
£hamnua hybridua £. o/' T. p. 172. i4. A. p. 

Height 10— 13 ft. U.M. 
IPlex europs'a fl. pleno E.oJT. p. 200., -J. .5. 

nblimum Tlnus E. of T. p. S16. A. B. p. 103 

8— 10 ft. 1*. 

DECIDUOUS SHRl 

DeaAtoia broad-leaved SAn^, tie PUmti ofo 

Duraliott, adapted for Cem 

J'Inua Tiridis £. of 7*. p. 836. A. B. p. 1689., thi 

5— 6 ft. 
Bcrberii ariatata E. of T. p. 49. A. B. p. 307., t 

berry. Heiglit 6— 10ft. U. W. 
BcHieiit asiatica E. of T. p. 49. A. B. p. 306., tl 

6 — 8 ft. 3i. 6rf. 
Bcrberit cr^dta B. of T. p. 44. -4. B. p. 30+.. tl 

3 — 4 ft. 2». 6ti. 
Beibeni iberica £. o/" T. p. 45. A. B. p. 30*., tl 

3—5 ft. li. 6rf. 
Bh-bfrU siblrica £. d/T, p. 42. A. B. p. 301., th 

2—3 ft. 2*. 6d. 
BertCTii sinensis -E. o/ T. p. 46. .4. .B. p. 304., th 

3—5 ft. 2». 6d. 
ffirSe™ vulearis -E. ofT. p. 42. ^.B. p.301.,th( 

6— 10 ft. \t.%L 
^aula ii&na E. o/ T. p. 840. .rf. A p. 1705. 

6—8 ft. \t. 6d. 
BetuXa. piimila E. of T. p. 640. A. B. p. 1705., tl 

2— 3 ft. W. 6rf. 
Caragdna arborescens E, ofT. p. 237. A. B. p. 

Height 15— 20ft. 1». 6rf. 
Ceraaus hyemalis £. of T. p. 285. J. J. p. 7' 

Height 3— 4.ft. I». 6d. 
Cerasua nigra E. ofT. p. 284. A. B. p. 704., thi 

6— lOft. S».6rf. 
Chimonlinthua ftagrana £. ofT. p. 445. X5. j 

ChimonanthuB. Height 6 — 8 ft. 3».^d. 
Chionanthua virginica E. of T. p. 634. A. B. 

Height 10— 30ft. 8<.6rf. 
C6rnus £lba E. ofT. p. 503. A. B. p. 1011., 

Height 4. '"'' "-■ 
"'rnuB 41bi 

Dogwood. H«gbc 6 
C6rnus alternifotia E. ofT. p. 501. A. B. p. lOli 

viooA. Height 15— 20 ft. \$. 
CcSrnuamfiaE. o/r. p.505. ^.J. p.I014,theO 

12— 20 ft. It. &/. 
Cornua aangutnea E. of T. p.502. A. B. p. 1' 

Height 4— 15 ft. 9d. 
Cdrjlua .4vell&na E. of T. p. 021. A. B. p. 

Height20ft. Sd. The badge of the clan C 
Cdrylufi 2tvell&n3 purpurea, the purple-leaved Hi 




m tm • ^^'' ^^^m^nm iuu •m ) »m' > m uv '\ t w I m ■»«ip»>iwn m 1 1 m ■>»^^»dw^<w»^p^^^||ll<w^<M■^^WMw^^^»^^^wwl^^py■■^ ^» ^l^^^■ > ■! ^ I I II ** 



TBBES, SfiRUBS, AND HERBACEOUS 1»LANTS. 106 

■>♦ 

' Cotoneaster frfgida J5. of T, p. 407. A.B. p. 871., the frigid Cotoneaster. 

Height 10—20 ft. 2*. 6rf. 
Cotoneaster frlgida afflnis E, of T, p. 408. A. B, p. 871., the related Coto- 
neaster. Height 10 — 20 ft. 1*. 6rf. 
Cotoneaster nummularia E, of 2\ p. 409. A, B, p. 872., the money-like-leaved 

Cotoneaster. Height 10 — 15ft. 1*. 6rf. 
Cotoneaster vulgaris E. ofT, p. 406. A, B, p. 870., the common Cotoneaster. 

Height 4— 5 ft. Is. 6d, 
Cratae^gus parvifdlia E, of 7\ p. 383. A. B. p. 841 ., the small-leaved Thorn. 

Height 4—6 ft. 3*. 6rf. 
Cratae^^us virginica E, of T, p. 384. A, B. p. 842., the Virginian Thorn. 

Height 4—5 ft. 
Cydonia japonica E, of T, p. 452. A, B, p. 931., the Japan Quince Tree. 

Height 5—6 ft. 1*. 6d. 
Cydonia sinensis E, of T. p. 451. -4. ^. p. 931., the China Quince Tree. 

Height 10—12 ft. 2s, 6d. 
2>aphne Mezereum E. of T. p. 687. A, B, p. 1307., the common Mezereon. 

Height 3— 4 ft. 1*. 
-Eudnymus europae^us E, of T, p. 149., A. B. p. 496., the Spindle Tree. 

Height 6— 12 ft. 9rf. 
^uonymus latifolius E, of T, p. 150. A. B. p. 498., the broad-leaved Euony- 

raus, or Spindle Tree. Height 10 — 20 ft. \s. 6d, 
Gleditschia sinensis purpurea E. of T, p. 252. A, B. p. 654., the Chinese 

Gleditschia. 2s, 6d. 
iJamamMis virginica E. of T. p. 499. A. B. p. 1007., the Wych Hazel. Height 

20— 30 ft. 2*. 6fl?. 
Irigustrum vulgare E, of T, p. 629. A, B, p. 1198., the common Privet. 

• Height 6— 10 ft. ^. 
Paliiirus aculeatus E, ofT, p. 168. A, B, p. 527., Christ's Thorn. Height 

15—20 ft. 1*. 6rf. 
Pavw macrostkchya E, of T, p. 133. A, B, p. 473., the long-racemed Pavia. 

Height 10—15 ft. 2*. 6rf. 
Philadelphus coronarius E, of T, p. 460. A, B. p. 951., the Mock Orange. 

Height 10— 12 ft. 9rf. 
i*rinos deciduus E, ofT. p. 1 64. A, B, p. 520., the deciduous Winter Berry. 

Height 3-5 ft. 1*. 6rf. 
Prunus maritima E. ofT, p. 275. A, B, p. 691., the sea^side-inhabiting Plum 

Tree. Height 6—8 ft. 2s, 6d. 
Prunus spinosa E, ofT, p. 271. A. B, p. 684., the common Sloe Thorn. 

Height 10—15 ft. Is, ed, 
Pyrus arbutifolia E, ofT, p. 446. A, B, p. 925., the Arbutus-leaved Aronia. 

Height 4—6 ft. 2s. ed, 
1 yrus Chamaem^spilus E, of T, p. 449. A, B, p. 928., the dwarf Medlar* 

Height b—% ft. 1*. 6rf. 
Pyrus pubens E, of T. p. 448. A, B, p. 927., the downy-branched Aronia. 

Height 4— 5 ft. ^.U, 
Pyrus spiiria E, of T, p. 444. A, B, p. 924., the spurious Service Tree. 

Height 10—20 ft. 2*. 6d, 
Quercus Banisteri E. of T. p. 876. A. B, p. 1893., the Holly-leaved, or Bear, 

Oak. Height 3—10 ft. 
i^hdmnus alpinus E, of T, p, 175. A, B, p. 536., the Alpine Buckthorn. 

Height 5— 10 ft. 1*. 
iZhamnus catharticus E, ofT. p. 172. A, B, p. 531., the purging Buckthorn. 

Height 10— 12 ft. I*, 
i^hamnus Frdngula E. of T. p. 177. A. B. p. 539., the breaking Buckthorn, 

ot Berry-bearing Alder. Height 8 — 10 ft. Is. 6d. 
i^hamnus latifdlius E, of T, p. 177. A. B. p. 538., the broad-leaved Buck- 
thorn. Height 10— .15 ft. Is. 6d, 



106 



ON LATINO OUT OEMETEBIES. 



Rh^ C6tuiii8 E, ofT. p. 187. A. B. p. 549., the Venetian Sumach. Height 

4^-6 ft. If. ed. 
JZhib gUd>ra E. ef T. p. 188. A. B. p. 551., the Scarlet Sumach. Height 

5—18 ft. If. &/. 
£hu8 typhma E, of T, p. 187. A. B. p. 550., the Stag's Horn Sumach. 

Height 20 ft. 9d, 
Rhda yenenata E. of T, p. 189. A. B. p. 552., the poisonous Rhus, Poison 

Wood, or Swamp Sumach. Height 15 — ^20 ft. U, 6d. 
iSbmbucus racemosa E. of T. p. 515. A, B. p. 1031., the racemose-flowered 

Elder. Height 10—12 ft. It. 6d. 
Sheph^rdia arg^ntea E, of T. p. 700. A. B. p. 1327., the silver-leaved Shq)- 

herdia. Height 12—18 ft. U. 6d 
Shq)herd«i canadensis E. of T. p. 700. A, B. p. 1327., the Canadian Shep- 

herdia. Hei^t 6—8 ft. 2s, 6d, 
5pira&^a orisefolia E. tf T. p. 309. A, B. p. 731., the White-Beam-tree- 

leaved Spiraea, rieight 6—8 ft. It. 
iS^irae'^a chamaedrifolia E. of T. p. 300. A, B. p. 724., the Gkrmander-leaved 

Spiraea. Height 2 — 8 ft. 9d. 
iSjpirse^a Aypericif51ia E. of T. p. 303. A, B. p. 726., the Hypericum-leaved 

Spiraea. Height 4—6 ft. 9d. 
iSjpirae'a opulifolia E. of T. p. 299. A. B. p. 723., the Virginian Guelder 

Rose. Height 8—10 ft. 9d. 
Staphylea trifolia E. of T. p. 147. A. B. p. 493., the Bladder-nut Tree. 

Height 6— 12 ft. It. 
Symphoricarpos montanus E, of T. p. 542., the Mountain St. Peter's Wort. 

Heights— 6 ft. 1*. 
Symphoricarpos vulgaris E. of T. p. 541. A. B. p. 1058., the common St. 

Peter's Wort. Hei^t 3—6 ft. 9(/. 
Syringa Josikse^a E. of T. p. 637. A. B. p. 1201., Josika's Lilac. Height 

6—12 ft. 1*. 6d. 
Syringa persica E. of T. p. 637. A. B, p. 1211., the Persian Lilac. Height 

4—6 ft. 9d. 
Syringa rothomagensis E. of T. p. 637. A. B, p. 1212., the Rouen Lilac. 

Height 6—8 ft. 9d. 
Syringa vulgaris E. of T, p. 636. A. B. p. 1209., the common Lilac. Height 

8— 10 ft. 9d. 
Syringa vulgaris dlba E. of T. p. 636. A. B. p. 1209., the common White 

Lilac. 9d. 
Fibumum dentatum E. of T. p. 521. A. B. p. 1038., the toothed-leaved Vi- 
burnum. Height 4—6 ft. It. 
Fibumum Lantana E. of T. p. 520. A. B. p. 1035., the Wayfaring Tree. 

Height 12— 15 ft. 1*. 
Fibiimum Lentago E. of T. p. 517. A. B. p. 1033., the Lentago, or pliant- 
branched Viburnum. Height 6 — 10ft. Ix. 6(/. 
Fibumum O'pulus E. of T, p. 522. A. B. p. 1039., the Guelder Rose. Height 

6— 12 ft. 9d. 
Xanthoxylumyraxlneum E.ofT. p. 142. A, B, p. 488., the common Tooth- 
ache Tree. Height 10—15 ft. 2t. ed. 

LOW TREES AND SHRUBS FOR WALLS. 

Select low Treet or Shrubt for a Cemetery or Churchyard Wall^ where the 

Expente of Training it not an Object, 

* Evergreen or Subevergreen, 

-4'rbutus Andrichne E. of T. p. 575. A. B. p. 1120., the Strawberry Tree. 

Height 20—30 ft. 5*. 
Aristotelttx Macqw E. of T. p. 183. A. B. p. 543., the Macqui Aristotelia. 

Height 6 ft. \t.6d. 



TBEES^ SHBUBS^ AND HEBBACEOUS PLANTS. 107 

Ceanothus azureus E. of T. p. 180. A. B. p. 539., the Red Root. Height 
6— 10 ft. 2ff. 6rf. 

CVatae^giis mexicana E, of T, p. 384. A, B, p. 843., the Mexican Thorn. 
Height 10— 15 ft. 2s, 6rf. 

£scall6nta rubra E. of T, p. 490. A, B. p. 993., the red-flowered Escallonia. 
Heights— 6 ft. 1«. 6rf. 

J?u6nyiiiu8 japonicus E, of T, p. 153. A, B, p. 501. If. 6^^. 

Xaurus n6bilis E. of T. p. 681. A. B. p. 1297., the Sweet Bay. Height 
30—60 ft. U. 6d. 

Zigustmm lucidum E. of T. p. 630. A. B, p. 1201., the shining-leaved Pri- 
vet, or Wax Tree. Height 10—20 ft. U, 6rf. 

Magnolia grandiflora E, of T, p. 22. A, B. p. 261., the large-flowered Mag- 
nolia. Height 20—30 ft. 3#. 6d. 

Mah6nia &scicularis E, of T, p. 50. A, B. p. 309., the Ash Berberry. Height 
5—8 ft. 7s, 6d, 

Photinia serrulata E, of T, p. 404. A, -B. p. 868., the serrulated-leaved Pho- 
tinia. Height 12— 15 ft. 2s, ed. 

Yucca gloriosa E,ofT,p. IIOI. A, B, p. 2521., the glorious Adam's Needle. 
Height 5 ft. 5s. 

*# Deciduous. 

ijmjgdalus orientalis E, of T, p. 265. A. B, p. 679., the Eastern Almond 
Tree. Height 8—10 ft. 2s, 6d, 

Buddies globosa E, of T. p. 670. A, B. p. 1276. the globe-flowered Bud- 
dlea. Height 12— 1 5 ft. Is, 6d, 

Deutzia scabra E, of T, p. 466. A, B, p. 950, the scabrous Deutzia. Height 
4 — 6 ft. 1*. 6d. 

^bfscus syriacus E, of T, p. 62. A. B. p. 362., the Althsea Frutex. Height 
6 ft. Nine varieties. From 6d, to 1*. 

Magnolia conspfcua E, of T, p. 33. A.B,p, 278., the Yulan, or conspicuous- 
flowered Magnolia. Height 20 — 30 ft. 5s, 

Magnolia c. Soulangeana £. of T. p. 33. A. B. p. 272., Soulange's Magnolia. 
Height 15— 20 ft. 5s, 

Magnolia cordata E, of T, p. 30. A, B. p. 275., the heart-leaved Magnolia. 
Height 20—30 ft. Ss, 6d. 
* Magnolia purpurea E, of T. p. 35. A, B^ p. 282., the purple-flowered Mag- 
nolia. Height 3—5 ft. 2s, 6d. 

Rtbes aureum prae'cox E, of T, p. 487. A, B. p. 989., the golden-flowered 
Currant. Is, 

Ribes Menziesii E. of T. p. 475. Menzies's Gooseberry. Height 4 — 5 ft. 
Is, ed, 

Ribes sangulneum E, of T, p. 486. A, B, p. 988., the bloody, or red-flowered. 
Currant. Height 4 — 8 ft. 9^. 

Ribes speciosum E, of T. p.474. A, B, p. 974., the showy-flowered Goose- 
berry. Height 4—8 ft. 1*. 6d, 

Robinia hispida E, of T. p. 236. A, B, p. 627., the Rose Acacia. Height 
6—20 ft. Is. 6d. 

Robinia macrophylla E, of T. p. 237. A.B,p, 628., the large-leaved Rose 
Acacia. Is. 6d, 

Robinia rosea E, of T, p. 237. A, B. p. 627., the rosy-flowered Rose Acacia. 
U. 6d. 

CLIMBERS. 

Climbing ShrvJbs adapted for a Wall where the Ground is not dug, 

♦ Evergreen. 

Ifedera Ifelix E, of T, p. 497. A, B, p. 1000., the common Ivy. Height 
20— 60 ft. Seven varieties, all beautiful. From 66?. to \s,Qd, The 
badge of the clan Gordon. 



OK LATINO OUT CEMETEBIE8. 



•• Deciduous. 



AnipeI6pBU Sederdcea E. ofT.p. 139. A.S. p. 462., the fire-lea 

Height 30— 50 ft. U.6d. 
^ristolochia si|iho E. of T. p. 701. A. B. p. 1339., the tube-flowen 

wort. Height 15— 30 ft. 2t.6d. 
Clematis Flaaimula E. of T. p. 3. A. B. p, 233., the sweet-sceated 

Bower. Height 10— 15 ft. 1*. M. 
Gematis Vitalba E. of T. p. 5. A. B. p. 235., the Traveller's Joy. 

15— 30 ft. 1*. 
Jasmtnuni offidoale E. of T. p. 656. A. S. p. 1250., the common 

Height 4O_50ft. U. 
Lonlcera E. of T. p. 536. A. B. p. 1043., the Honeysuckle. Ten sot 

Gd. to U. 6d. 
L</aum b^rbaruDi E. of T. p. 666. A. B. p. 1270., the Barbary Bo 

Height 20—30 ft. 9rf. 
Menispermuin canadense E. of T. p. 40. A. S. p. 396., male and fe 

Canadian Moonseed. Height 8—13 ft. li. 6d. 
Periploca gr^'ca E. of T. 659. A. B. p. 1257., the Greek Periploca. 

ao— 30 ft. 2*. M. 
Physiiinthus Albicans E. of. T. p. 659. A. 3. p. 2581. 2t. 6d. 
Bbbs radlcana E, of T. p. 190. A. S. p. 555., the rootiag-branched 

Height 10—20 ft. 1«. 6d. 
Rhus Buaveolens E. of T. p. 191. A. B. p. 557., the sweet-sceated 

Height 1—4 ft. 1(. 6^. 
Ahua Toxicodendron E. of T. p. 190, A. B. p. 356., the Poison-tree 

Sumach. Height 10—20. If. 6i^ 
Sbsa arvensis E. of T. p. 344. A. B. p. 772. Several varieties, qui 

From 6d. to 3«. 6d. 
ritis cordirotia E. of T. p. 138. A. B. p. 480., the Chicken Qrape. 

10—20 ft. 
Fitia I-abrdfica E. of T. p. 137. A. B. p. 479., the Fox Grape. 
'" 'Wft. 2*.6rf. 

ia E. of T. p. 138. A. B. p. 480., the river-side, or aweei 

Height 20—30 ft. 3*. 6rf. 
Fera apiifolia E. of T. p. 137. A. B. p. 478., the Parsl 
! Vine. 3*. 6d. 

jrafoliis incanis E. of T. p. 137. A.B. p. 478., the hoa 
i Vine. 2f. 6d. 

jra Qhis rubesc^ntibuB E. of T. p. 137. A. B. p. 478., ll 
!. 2». M. 

fruteacens E. of T. p. 349. A. B. p. 647., the shrubby 
It 30—30 ft. 1*. 6J. 

iihin^nsis E. of T. p. 349. A. 3. p. 648., the Chinese 
It 50— 120 ft. 2i. 6tf. 



Chmiing Shnhi where there ii a dug Border. 

* Evergreen or Subevergreen. 

apreolata E.ofT. p. 660. A.B.p. 1259., the tendriled 
umpet Flower. Height IS — 20. 2i. 6d. 
{rata E. of T. p. 531. A. 3. p. 1048., the pleasant, or ( 
ysuckle. Hdght 15— 20 ft. lt.6d. 
enipervirena E. ofT. p. 531. A. 3, p. 1049., the evergreen 
ysuckle. Height 6 — 10 ft. \t. 

pervirens E. of T. p. 345. A.B. p. 773., the cvergreet 
Height 30— 40 ft. 1». 



TBEES, SHBUBS^ AIH) HERBACEOUS PLANTS. 109 

** Deciduous. 

Lonicera E. of T. p. 526. A. B. p. 1042., the Honeysuckle. Several species 

and yarieties. 
jRosa E. ofT, p. 321* A, B. p. 748., the Rose Tree. Several species. From 

4(/. to 2s. 

UNDERSHRUBS. 

Undershrubs of very tmaU Size, frequently planted over Graves, 

* Evergreen. 

Tinea m^or and minor, the greater and lesser Perrywinkle, 6d, Common in 
burying-grounds in the Tyrol, and probably used there in consequence of 
the notice of the plant by Rousseau : " Voild la Pervenche! '* 

^yp^ricum calycinum, the Tutsan St. John's Wort. 4rf. 

i^osmarinus officinalis, the common Rosemary. 4</. 

J?uta graveolens, the common Rue. Aid. 

Thymus vulgaris, the common Thyme. 2d, 

Lavandula Spica, the common Lavender. 3</. 

Oxyc6ccus paliistris, the common Cranberry. 6^?. The badge of the clan Grant. 

Faccinium Htis idse^ the red Whortleberry, or Cowberry. 6rf. The badge 
of the clan Macleod. 

J^mpetrum nigrum, the Crowberry. 6rf. The badge of the clan M*Lean. 

Calluna vulgaris, the Ling. Qd, The badge of the clan Macdonell. 

EvicB. TetraJix, the cross-leaved Heath. Qd, The badge of the clan Mac- 
donald. 

Eticsk cinerea, the fine-leaved Heath. 6^^. The badge of the clan Macalister. 

** Deciduous. 

ilrtemlsia Absinthium, the common Southernwood. 3d. 

iS^alix herbacea, the herbaceous Willow. 6£^. 

i/ypericum Kalmiani^m, Kalm's St. John's Wort. 6d, Common in the 

cemeteries at Carlsruhe, and in other parts of Baden and Wiirtemberg. 
i/yp^ricum elatum, hircinum, and prolificum. 6^. each. 
iJndrosae^mum officin^e, the common Tutsan. 6<i. 
jMyrica Gdle^ the sweet Gale. 6rf. The badge of the clan Campbell. 
i?ubus saxatilis, the Roebuck-berry. Qd, The badge of the clan Macnab. 

SHRUBS FOR GRAFTING STANDARD HIGH. 

List of Shrubs which, when grafted standard high, form ornamental Plants of sin" 
gular Shapes and Habits of Growth, well adapted for planting singly beside 
Graves or Tombstones, for marking any particular Spot, or for creating 
Variety in a Shrubbery Walk, or in the Glades of a Pleasure^Ground, The 
price varies from 2s, 6d. to is, 6d, 

* Evergreen. 

Arctostaphylos U Va 6rsi. Thuja p^ndula, on the common Arbor 

A^rbutus alpina. Vitae. 

Cotoneaster rotundifolia, microph^Ua, Pinus Pinea, on P, sylvestris. 

and ^uxifolia. Pinus pumilio, on P. sylvestris. 

Philiyrea, all the sorts on the Ever- Pinus Banksi^/ia, on P. sylvestris. 

green Privet. Pinus inops, on P. sylvestris. 

** Deciduous. 

Calophaca wolgdrica. Caragdna spinosa. 

Caragdna pygmse^a. Caragdna /ragacanthoides. 



110 



ON LAYING OUT CEMETERIES. 



Caragdna Chamidgu. 

Census C^amsecerasus. 

Ci^rasus prostrate. 

Cerasus pumila. 

Cerasus depressa. 

C'erasus pygmas^. 

cytisus sessilifolius. 

Cytisus alpinus, on C, Laburnum. 

Cytisus icoparius* the common 

Broom, on C. Laburnum. 
Cytisus fcoparius dlbus. 
Cytisus purpureuR, on C, Lab6mum. 
i^xinus excelsior aurea, and other 

varieties. 
Genista triquetra. 
Halimodendron argenteum. 
t/asminum officinale, and other species, 

on the common Ash, or on the 

common Lilac. 



Pavta discolor. 

Pavta ri^bra humilis. 

Pavia macrostachya. 

Pyrus spuria. 

Pyrus spuria pendula. 

Pyrus orbutifolia. 

P^rus orbutifolia serdtina. 

Pyrus melanocarpa. 

Pyrus floribunda. P. depressa. 

Roblnta Pseud-^cacia umbraculi- 

fera. 
Robinta Pseud-^cacia tortuosa. 
jSfalbL purpurea. S, herbacea. 

<S^partium^unceum,on the Laburnum. 
Sf/ringa persica, and its varieties^ on 

the common Ash. 
Syringa vulgaris, on the common 

Ash. 
Tecoma radicans, on the Catalpa. 



PERENNIAL HERBACEOUS PLANTS. 

Perennial herbaceous Plants adapted for Cemeteries and Churchyca-ds, 

For planting in dug ground, whether in beds or over graves, every description 
of herbaceous plant, except those which require peat soil, is eligible ; but 
for planting on turf to form single specimens, or what gardeners call ** lawn 
plants," a selection requires to be made of such as have peculiar properties. 
These are : considerable bulk above ground ; great natural hardiness of stem 
and foliage and durability of root; under-ground buds, or strong surface stocks, 
that will be secure from injury during the winter or dormant season ; a com- 
pact habit of growth both of the roots and top ; and sufficient natural vigour 
not to be injured by the compact texture of a grassy surface. The common 
paeony, the rhubarb, and the asparagus, are good examples of the kind of plant 
required ; and the following list includes such plants, and a few others which 
may be procured in the principal botanic gardens and nurseries. The prices, 
when a single plant is ordered, vary from &. to \s, 6d, 



Herbaceous Perennials with strong under^ground Suds, and compact Heads that do 

not require the Support of Stakes. 

Clematis ochroleuca, the yellowish white Virgin's Bower. Height 2 ftl 

TTialictrum majus, the greater Meadow Rue. Height 3 ft. 

iJconitum variegatum, the variegated Aconite. Height 5 ft. 

^ctae^a spicata, the spiked Bane-berry. Height 3 ft. The berries are poison. 

Pxonia albiflora, P. officinalis, P. tenuifolia, and others ; the white-flowered, 

common, and slender-leaved paeonies. Height 2 ft. 
Macleaya cordata, the cordate Macleaya. Height 6 ft. The stems require 

support in exposed situations. 
Crambe maritima and C, cordifolia, the common and the heart-leaved Sea-kale. 

Height 1 ft. 6 in. and 6 ft. The latter is a noble plant. 
Lunaria rediviva, the revived Honesty. Height 3 fc. 
Datisca ^nn&bina, the Hemp-like Datisca. Height 4 ft. 
Jlthae^ officinalis, the officinal Marsh Mallow. Height 4 ft. 
Geranium ibericum, the Iberian Crane's Bill. Height 1ft. 6 in. 
2>ictamnus Fraxinella, the Fraxinella. Height 3 ft. 
O'robus niger, the black Bitter Vetch. Height 3 ft. 
O'robus vernus, the spring Bitter Vetch. Height 1 ft. 



TBEES, SHRUBS, AND HERBACEOUS PLANTS. Ill 

Spires'' 2i Ariincus, the Gbat's -beard. Height 4 fl. 

Zythnim virgatum, the twiggy Lythnim. Height 3 ft. 

J&r5Fngium planum, the flat-leaved Eiyngo. Height 3 ft. 

^r^ngium alpinum, the alpine Eryngo. Height 2 ft. 

^ryngium ametb^stinum, the amethystine Eryngo. Height 3 ft. 

Aralia racem6sa, the racemose Aralia. Height 4 ft. 

J^chinops sphserocephalus» the round-headed Globe Thistle. Height 5 ft. 

j^chinops iZitro, the Ritro Globe Thistle. Height 3 ft. 

il'^ster sibfricus, the Siberian Starwort. Height 2 ft. 

Solidago bicolor, the two-coloured Golden Rod. Requires a stake in exposed 
situations. 

Stenactis speciosa, the showy-flowered Stenactis. Height 2 ft. 

Solidago flexicaulis, the crook-stalked Golden Rod. Height 2 ft. 

Zonula Helenhim, the Elecampane. Height 4 ft. 

Telekia cordifolia, the showy Telekia. Height 4 ft. 

Helianthus multiflorus, the many-flowered Sunflower. Height 6 ft. 

Campanula latifdlia, C. macr&ntha, C. Trachelium, and C.glomerata ; the broad- 
leaved, large-flowered, Throatwort, and clustered, Bellflower. Height 
ft'om 2 ft. to 3 ft. These plants, in exposed situations, require stakes. 

Phlox paniculata, P. corymbosa, and P. acuminata, the panicled-flowered, 
corymbose-flowered, and pointed-leaved Phlox. Height 3 ft. to 5 ft. ; in 
exposed situations requiring stakes. 

Gentihna lutea, the yellow Gentian. Height 4 ft. Requires an open airy si- 
tuation, and a stake if it be much exposed. 

Phl6x glaberrima, the smoothest Phlox. Height 3 ft. 

Symphytum bob^micum, the Bohemian Comfrey. Height 3 ft. 

Scopdiia carni61ica, the Carniolan Scopolia. Height 1 ft. 

JSetonica grandiflora, the great-flowered Betony. Height 1 ft. 6 in. 

jSalvia glutinosa, the glutinous Sage. Height 3 ft. 

Zysimachia vulgaris, the common Loose-strife. Height 3 ft. 

iyysimachia verticillAta, the whorled Loose-strife. Height 1 ft. 

i/ysimachia thyrsiflora, the thyrse-flowered Loose-strife. Height 1 J ft. 

iStatice latifolia, the broad-leaved Sea Lavender. Height 1 ft. 

Rumex alpinus, the alpine Dock. Height 4 ft. 

i2heum palm^tum, the palmated Rhubarb. Height 5 ft. 

i?heum Emodi, the Southern Rhubarb. Heieht 8 ft. 

j^uphorbia hibemica, the Irish Spurge. Height 1 ft. 

CTrtica nlvea, the snow-white-leaved Nettle. Height 6 ft. Requires a stake 
in exposed situations. 

Pris siblrica, and /.s. fldre albo, the common and white-flowered Siberian Iris. 
Height 3 ft. and 2^ feet. 

^^rum 2>rac(inculus, the common Dragon Arum. Height 3 ft. 

TCinkia subcordata, the subcordate- leaved Funkia. Height 1 ft. 

Funkia ovata, the ovate-leaved Funkia. Height l^ft. 

i^'llium Yictorialis, the Victorialis Garlic. Height 2 ft. 

Asparagus officinalis, the common Asparagus. Height 4 ft. 

Feratnun nigrum, the dark-flowered Veratrum, or black Hellebore. Height 
3 ft. 

Feratrum album, the white Veratrum, or white Hellebore. Height 5 ft. 

Uvularia grandiflora, the large-flowered Uvularia. Height 1 ft. 

Herbaceous Plants with the same Properties, except that the Roots are less 

compact, though stUl not creeping. 

5ida Napse^a, the Napaea Sida. Height 4 ft. Requires a stake in exposed 

situations. 
Baptlsia australis, the Southern Baptisia. Height 2^ ft. 
Galega orientMis, the Oriental Goat's Rue. Height 4 ft. 
Epilobium angustissimum, the narrowest-leaved Willow Herb. Height 2 ft. 



112 ON LAYING OUT CEMETERIES. 

Astrantia maxima, the greatest Masterwort Height 2 ft. In very mild 
winters does not die quite down to the ground. 

Phyteuma campanuloides, the Campanala-like Rampion. Hdght 1 ft. 

Cynanchum Vincet^xicum, the Vincetoxicum Cj'nanchum. Hei^t 2 ft. 

^orago orientalis, the Oriental Borage. Height 2 ft. In mild winters does 
not die quite down. . 

Acanthus mollis, A. spinosus, and J. spinosissimus, the soft, prickly, and most 
prickly, Bear's-breech. Height 3 ft. In sheltered situations these plants 
sometimes retain a jittle foliage through the winter. They are interest- 
ing on account of their foliage, which, according to some, gave rise to that 
of the Corinthian capital ; but the adherent petioles of palm leaves are 
much more likely to have been the original type. 

ffemerocAllis flava and H. fulva, the yellow and copper-coloured Day Lily. 
Height 2 ft. 

Herbaceous Plants of vigorous Growth and compact Habit, but which do not lose 

the Whole of their Foliage in Winter. 

^conitum Napeilus, the Monk's-hood Aconitum. Hdght 4 ft. 

Papaver orientalis and P. bracteata, the Oriental and bracteate Poppy. 

Height 3 — 4 ft. In exposed situations these may require to be staked. 
Geranium sanguineum, the bloody Crane's Bill. Height 1 ft. 
Geranium lividum, the livid- flowered Crane's Bill. Height 1} ft. 
Geranium reflexum, the reflexed-flowered Crane's Bill. Height IJft. 
Xupmus polyphyllus, the many-leaved Lupine. Height 2 ft. 
Astr&ntia major, the greater Masterwort. Height 2 ft. 
A^Bter ^melius, the Amellus Starwort. Height 2 ft. 
Agrimonia Eupatdria, the Eupatoria Agrimony. Height 3 ft. 
Phlomis gigantea and P. samia, the gigautic and Samian Jerusalem Sage 

Height 3 ft. 
Zamium Orvdla, the Orvala, or Balm-leaved, Archangel. Height If ft. 
^et6nica stricta, the strict Betony. Height 1^ ft. 
Melissa officinalis, the officinal Balm. Height 1 ft. 

Evergreen herbaceous Plants of compact Habit, which wiU grow on a grassy 

Surface, 

^elleborus foe^tidus, the fetid Bear's-foot Hellebore. Height \\ ft. 

^elleborus niger, the black Christmas Rose. Height 1 ft. 

/Telleborus olvmpicus, the Olympian Hellebore. Height 1 ft. 

JIfalva moschata, the Musk Mallow. Height 2 ft. 

^S'axifraga crassifolia, the thick-leaved Saxifrage. Height 1 ft. 

iSiaxifraga cordifblia, the heart-leaved Saxifage. Height 1 ft. 

Valeriana rubra (Centranthus ruber Dec), the red Valerian ; and C. r. flore 
albo, the white-flowering Valerian. Height 1^ ft. 

JPerula communis, the common Giant Fennel. Height 10ft. 

Ferbascum ferrugineum, the rust-coloured Mullein. Height 3 ft. 

Poterium Sanguisorba, the Sanguisorba Burnet. Height 2 ft. 

Hohdea japonica, the Japan Rohdea. Height 2 ft. 

Pris fcetidissima and /. f. variegata, the common and variegated Gladiolus Iris. 
Height l^ft, 

iS'tdtice latifolia and stellulata, the broad-leaved and the stellulate Sea Laven- 
der. Height 1 ft. 

^sphodelus luteus, the yellow Asphodel. Height 3 ft. 

Anth^ricum Liliastrum and A. Liliago, the Liliaster and the Liliago Antheri- 
cum. Height IJft. and 1 ft. 

y^cca filamentosa, the filamentose Adam's Needle. Height 2 ft. 



^«« *.».— *^Wt>— I ^~.. ■ I ■ -^T — ■■ ■— — — t^^y— <CI 



TREES, SHRUBS, AND HERBACEOUS PLANTS. 113 



Herbaceous Plants, of bold Chrowihy which produce mani/ upright Stems ; and, in 
exposed Sanations, will require Stakes from the Middle of June till September 
or October, ' * . 

Clematis erecta, the upright Virgin's Bower. Height 3 ft. 

Clematis integrifolia, the entire-leaved Virgin's Bower. Height. 2 ft. 

Thalictrum gla6cum, the glaucous-leaved Meadow Rue. Height 5 ft. 

Delphinium elatum, the tall B«e Larkspur. Height 6 ft. 

Delphinium az^ureum, the azure Larkspur. Hei^t 6 ft. 

Lychnis chalcedonica, the Chalcedonian Lychnis. Height 2 ft. 

iSida diolca, the dioecious Sida. Height 6 ft. 

Sanguis6rba canadensis, the Canadian great Burnet. Height 3 ft. 

Sanguis6rba officinalis, the officinal great Burnet. Height 4 ft. 

Z/igusticum Levisticum, the common Lovage. Height 6 ft. 

Scabiosa leucantha, the white-flowered ScsS^ious. Height 3 ft. 

Rudbeckta purpurea, the purple Rudbeckia. Height 5 ft. 

jSllphium perforatum, the perfoliate Silphium. Height 7 ft. 

iSiflphium laciniatum, the jagged-Ieaved Silphium. A splendid plant, which 

attains the height of 10 or 12 feet on a lawn. 
5'ymphytum asperrimum, the roughest Comfrey. Height 6 ft. 

Herbaceous Plants with creeping Roots, which will thrive on a grassy Surface^ and 
may therefore be introduced in Burying' Grounds or on Lawns, 

Mondrda didyma, the twin, or Oswego Tea, Monarda. Height 3 ft. 
Tanacetum vulgare, the common Tansy. Height 2 ft. 
Crnaphalium margaritaceum, the pearly Everlasting. Height 1} ft. 
Galium ikfollugo, the great hedge Bed-straw. Height 2 ft. 
Convallaria Polyg6natum, Solomon's Seal. Height 2 ft. 
Convallaria msgafis, the Lily of the Valley. Height 6 in. 
Epilobium angustifblium, the narrow-leaved Willow Herb. Height 4 ft. 
^ryngium campestre, the field Eryngo. Height 2 ft. 
Centaurea montana, the mountain Centaurea. Height 1^ ft. 
iliyosotis palustris, the Forget-me-not. Height 6 in. 

BULBS. 

The genera Eranthis, Galanthus, Crocus, jSclUa, JTyacinthu*, Erythroniuni 
C61chicum, and some others of low growth, which flower in early spring oi 
late in autumn, may be planted on graves, or at the base of gravestones, 
where their foliage, after they have done flowering, will be out of the way of 
the scythe. The following may be planted singly on a grassy surface. 

Ad6ni« vemalis, the spring-flowering Adonis. Height 9 in. 

Xilium candidum, the white Lily. A favourite flower in Catholic countries. 

Height 3 ft. 
Xflium. Most of the other species in sheltered situations. 
Fritillaria imperils, the Crown-Imperial Fritillary. Height 4 ft. 
i^cilla esculenta, the Quamash Squill. Height I ft. 
Gladiolus communis, natalensis, and other species of the Com Flag. Height 

2— 4ft. 
Amar^i* formosissima, the Jacobaea Lily. The IHy of Turkish cemeteries, 

and the badge of the Knights of St. James of Spain, 
i^arclssus. AH. the species. 
Stembergta liitea, the yellow Stembergia. Height 6 in. Supposed by Sir J. 

E. Smith to be the lily alluded to by our Saviour in his sermon on the 

Mount. . 

I«euc6jum aestivuin, the summer Snowflake. Height IJft. 

I 



114 



ON LAYING OUT GEMETEBIEB. 



Ornithogalum. All the species. 

Tulipa sylvestris, the wild Tulip. Height 1 ft. 

FERNS. 

Struthi6pteri8 germanica, the German Struthiopteris. Height 2 ft. 
Struthi6pteris pennsylvanica, the Pennsylvanian Struthiopteris. Height 2 ft. 
Osraunda regalis, the royal Osmunda. Height 2 ft. 
Pteris aquilina, the common Brake. The badge of the clan Robertson. 

Height 3—4 ft. 
^splenium 2<^ilix mas, and A, i^ilix foe'^mina, the male and female Fern. 

Height 2— 3 ft. 
Aspidtum acule^tum, A. lobatum, and A. rfgidum ; the common prickly, the 

lobed-leaved, and the rigid Shield Fern. Height 6 in. to 2 ft. 



Countries. 

England. 

Scotland. 

Ireland. 



France. 



PLANTS USED AS BADGES. 

Plants which foitn national Badges, 
Names of Plants. 

The Rose, i2dsa sp. 

The Thistle, Cnicus lanceolatus. 

The Shamrock, O^xalis Acetosella L,, according to Mr. 

Bicheno ; but commonly considered to be the white clover, 

TVifolium repens L, 
The Fleur-de-lis, Pris sp. 



List of Plants which Jomi the Badges of the Highland Clans. 

These plants, many of which are trees or shrubs, are frequently planted 
over graves by Highland families settled abroad ; they are also occasionally 
planted in gardens both abroad and at home, and in some cases they are 
sculptured on tombs. Our authority for the following list is BlackwoocTs 
Magazine, vol. xii. p. 271. 



Names of the Clans 

Buchanan. 
Cameron. 



Names of Ike Plants used as Badges, 

^^tula alba L., the common Birch. 

Quercus pcdunculata W, (Q. i^obur L,), the common British 
Oak. 

ikfyrica Gale L., the Sweet Gale, or Dutch Myrtle. 

Acinus glutinosa, the Alder. 

Corylus ^vellana L., the common Hazel. 

5alix caprea L., the great round- leaved Sallow ; or any other 
native species. 

/Hex ^uifolium L., the common Holly. 
Farquharson. Digitalis purpurea L,, the purple Foxglove. 
Ferguson. Populus alba L., the great white Poplar, or Abele. 

Cytisus fcoparius L., the common Broom. 

Taxus baccata L., the Yew. 

Hedem Helix L., the common Ivy. 

Z)aphne Laureola, Spurge Laurel. 

Facclnium Oxycoccus i., the Marsh Whortleberry, or Cran- 
berry. 

Rhodiola rosea jL., the Rose Root. 

PJTws Afalus L., the Crab-Apple Tree. 

J^rica cinerea jL., the fine-leaved Heath. 



Campbell. 
Chisholm. 
Colquhoun. 

CUMMING. 

Drummond. 



Forbes. 

Frazer. 

Gordon. 

Graham. 

Grant. 



GUNN. 

Lamont. 
Macalister 



TREES, SHBUBB, AND HBKBACEOUS PLANTS. 



115- 



Macdonald. 
Macdonell. 

m'dougall. 

Macfablanb. 

M'Gregob. 

Macintosh, 

M'Kenzib. 

M'KmNON. 

McLachlan. 

McLban. 

MacLeod. 

Macnab. 
M'Neii.1.. 
Macpbbrson. 

M'QUAHHIE. 

Macrae. 
M'Ray. 
Menzibs. 

MUNRO. 

Murray. 

OGII.V1E. 

Oliphant. 
Robertson. 
Hose. 

Sinclair. 
Stewart. 
Sutherland. 



Erica T^lralin L., the crosB-leaved Heath. 

CuDuna vulgarig SaUib., the common LiDg. 

CupressuB senipcrvirens L., the Cypre«3. 

iliibus ChaniffimoruB L,, the Cloudberry. 

Piaas ajlTEBtria L., the Scotch Pine. 

Bunas aempervirena L., the common Box Tree. 

Xichen rangiferinus h., the Reindeer Lichen. 

Hmencma pulchrum, St, John's Wort. 

Pyrus aucuparia Gt£il., the Quicken Tree, Mountidn Aeh, or 

Rowan Tree. 
E'mpetrum nigrum L., the black Crowberry, or Crake- 

Faccinium Citis idae\i Z.., the red Whortleberry, or Cow- 

ifiibuB saxatilia, Roebuck-berrv. 

J^cus vesiculoBus, the Sea Ware. 

Siixm eenpervirens vari^ta L., the variegated Box Tree. 

Pritnus Bpinoaa L., the Black Thorn. 

Lycopddium alpimim L., the Savin-leaved Club Moss. 

iSctrpus Xaciistnf L., the Bulrush. 

J^Hxinus escSlea L., the Ash, 

Eagle's Feathers ; or, according to the Vetliarium Scoticiim, 

the Juniper. 
<7un(pcru9 communis L., the common Juniper. 
CVatx^gua Oxyacantha L., the Hawthorn. 
A^cer camp£stre, common Maple. 
Pt^ris aquilina L., the common Brake. 
Rosa canina L., the Briar Rose. 
^'rbutus atpina L., the black Bearberry. 
LycopMiuin clav^tum, common Club Moss. 
Cnicus lanceolatus, Spear Plume-thistle. 
Hileum pratense L., the Cat's-tail Grass, or Timothy Grass. 



SUPPLEMENTARY ENGRAVINGS. 



This lodge (Jig. 65.) is referred to in i 
appropriate for a cemetery, on account oi 



ia used as a belfi^, and the other contains a clock. The design is by John 
Dobson, Esq., of Newcastle upon Tyne, the contributor of several beautiful 
cottage villas to the SapplemcrU to our Enct/clopaSa of College Arckileclure. 



116 



ON LAYING OUT C£M£T£BI££U 



The tiles repre- 
sented in fig. 56. are 
the inyention of Mr. 
Keed, tile - maker, 
at Bishop Stortford, 
and ha?e only lately 
come into use. They 
are formed and put 
together exactly on 
the same principle as 
the new French roof- 
ing tiles, described 
and figured in the 
Supplement to the 
Encycloptedia of Cot- 
tage Architecture^ 
p. 1260. ; and, like 
them, they are com- 
pletely weather- 
tight, even when 
used with little or 

no cement. They ^8* ^* Rot^/mg TUet used im the Cambri^e Cemeterff CkapeL 

are the handsomest Bnglish tiles that we know of, and peculiarly suitable for 
ornamental cottages, lodges, &c., in the old English style. 




APPENDIX. 



Before publishing the preceding sheets, we sent a copy of them to a much 
esteemed correspondent at Leeds, Thomas Wilson, Esq., in whose taste and 
judgement we have the greatest confidence, and the following are his criti- 
cisms and suggestions. We have preferred giving them in his own words, 
although we are aware they were written rather as hints for ourselves, than 
with the expectation that they would be published in the form in which they 



were sent us. 



There is nothing that is so little creditable to the national taste as the 
mode of conducting funerals. It is easy to account for it however. We are 
a trade-ridden people; and allow, fix>m habit and indolence, tailors to be 
judges of taste in our dress, and milliners in that of ladies ; and yet, in the pre- 
sent state of education in this country, how is it possible that the former, at 
any rate, should have the knowledge and the cultivation necessary to qualify 
them to judge in such matters ? So with our undertakers : except in the me- 
tropolis, they are men of very limited cultivation ; and, besides, the subject is 
one on which people are so sensitive, in those cases where they are individually 
concerned as directors of funerab, that no man likes to go out of the beaten 
path ; and Nve remain, therefore, with parcels and patches of ceremonies and 
costumes as unsuitable to that which is associated with them, as bag wigs 
and court dresses with our ordinary attire. The reform in this, as in all 
other cases, must come out of the people themselves, when they are more 
enlightened ; and especially when they are trained to comprehend the nature 
of their own minds, and to reason logically, instead or being governed by 
conventional practices ; and particularly when correct principles of taste are 
established and acted upon, and deduced from the nature of things and from 
optical principles, and not regarded as a peculiar sul^ect to be comprehended 
only by a few gifted individuals. I incline to believe that they are susceptible 



APPENDIX. 



117 



DBticiil demonstratioD, witbin limitB nearly wt tiffd as en; other 
human enquiry. 

[, " 7%f ancient! contetaplated dealk uaf6ind terror' &c. I do not 
« with the writer quoted, as to the feelings of the ancients respect- 
; but I hare not time to seek for instances to support my viewB. 
lowever, just allude to thdr constant and guarded avoidance of the 
h, by the use of the euphemismi, sleep, or repose, fallen asleep, 
&c. 
" The mjlaenix ofcemeteriet and churchyartb m improving the ta*te" 
ould rather consider the cemetery as the result of the taste of the 
J, than the cause ef it i and I think, on reflection, you will admit 
suggestions, as to making it a place of instruction, are only applica- 




which we live. 

The " atuation" 
lot be fixed on 
reference to the 
f the country ; for 
if all risk of injury 
< is to be avoided, 

be placed a 
:ween a, b, and c, 
; and drains should Fig. tf, 
as at a <f, to pre- """ 
moisture from the porous strata descending lower, and there should 
Htations on these strata- 
line 9. from the bottom, " One vtam road, to at to allow of a heane," 
lould jH^fer an arrangement like the following. Let the entrance to 
i[ be under an extensive portico, which would admit of the whole 
1 being under cover: here the coffin should be taken out, and the 
mitted no brther. If the grave be at a distance from the chapel, a 
t low bier on wheels might be provided, which would move without 
t^on on (lagged or tua^daroised roads. Fig. 58. is a rough sketch of 
n which I would ar-aBHiBa, ^^ 
emetery chapel, and 
the procession. Ilie 
>uld be a protection 
ole train in wet wea- 
: the procession enter 

the hearse proceed 
Srat carriage stopping 
en the coffin arrived 

g I and they would 
pared all risk of see- 
learing the arrange- 
.endant on removing sc 
I: any accident should ( 




SB. FlaitJoT a CmrltTy Clutptl. 
o heavy a weight as a coffin, which often cause 
occur, and which, however carefully managed, 
riii|« tO the feelings of those whose thoughts should not he rudely dis- 
By rollers fixed in the floor of the hearae, the coffin might be more 
:hdrawn, and placed on a frame so contrived (hat the bearers might 
r places, while the coffin was suspended shoulder height. After the 
t might proceed, without turning, through h. 

last line. " Reqtdrei no mapping," How am I to find any person's 
there is not a plan of the cemetery kept ? If the friends of the 

know it, how are his grandchildren to discover it? 
last paragranh. " A maion't yard, with the thedi," &c. By no means 
rkshops within the cemetery at any rate ; nor a mason's or statuary's 
»ring. There should be no sound of tools, giving " dreadful note of 
on," to disturb the silence of the place. 



118 



ON LAYING OUT CEMETERIES. 



P. 25. " Entrance Lodge to the Tower Hamlets Cemeteri/,'*^ &c. In fig. 11. 
a, the substitution of folding doors for one swing door would be a great im- 
provement ; as it is now, ^ou must shut yourself into the vestibuW 6, before 
you can see the door leadmg to c. 

P. 35. " The GravC'Boje,** &c Why should not the grave-boxes be con- 
structed, like contractor's waggons, to tilt up ; and, like them, be placed on 
wheels ? 

P. 38, " Sixthly, . . . and therefore we would render it expentive" &c. Upon 
reflection, I think you will allow that we ought not to do tiiat indirectly, which 
public opinion will not support us in doing directly. If a practice be admitted 
to be wrong, then prohibit it altogether. To check it by taxing it is tyranny : 
it is admitting passion, and not reason, into legislation ; and it is also 
false, on the same principles as the old sumptuary laws are admitted to 
be wrong. Let acts of parliament stop outside the grave : all on this Eide 
of it, in this act of parliament nation, is governed by statute. No sooner, in 
these days, does a kind and benevolent spirit detect a hardship or a wrong, 
than it flies to parliament for a remedy; forgetting that, if we are to deal with 
effects, we must have millions of laws ; but, if we deal with causes, very few 
will suffice, and those few will soon be superfluous. 

" Interments in catacombs or vaults" With respect to interments in vaults 
or catacombs, as they will probably be continued, it is worth while consider- 
ing whether there should not be provided some outlet for the gas, by a drain 
running at the back, and communicating with a chimney in which a current 
of warm air would aid the draught, or with a chamber in which it might be 
absorbed or decomposed. In Jig. 59., a a are catacombs ; b b, channels com- 



6 

Hi 



L 



inc 




Fig. 59. Diagram showing how the MephUic Gas mcuf be collected and carried qff'from Cataeombs, 

municating with a drain c; rf, a chimney or chamber, in which there may be 
a fire for rarefying the air and creating a draught. 

" Seventhly, , . , We would allow individual taste,** &c. There should be a 
veto somewhere, to exclude inscriptions improper, inaccurate, or ludicrous. 

" Monuments.*^ It appears not to come within the scope of your work to 
give designs for monuments ; and, perhaps, it would render it more costly 
than you purpose ; but, if this work should, as I feel sure it ought and must, 
attract great attention, you might follow it up by a dissertation on the style of 
monuments, with examples. Such a manual would be a great boon to many a 
wounded spirit, that has now no other means of satisfying its desire to per- 
petuate some beloved object, than by consulting some rude village or town 
marble-mason, whose business-like ideas and technical expressions are in sad 
contrast with the thoughts of his employer. 

P. 42. ** Order Book** If this work is to be a manual, at least for direc- 
tors of cemeteries, if not for the managers, it might be useful, in the Appendix, 
to give the best forms of these books. Most of the books so used are 
susceptible of great improvement. If the present modes were thus made 
public, you might, through the Gardener's Magazine, from time to time, 
receive and record various suggestions for theu* improvement. 

** Register Book.** I have expressed an opinion that the books in use might 
be improved ; and, as an instance, I offer the following arrangement as much 
superior to the one you have given, because grouping together facts that are of 
the same kind or time. I have not considered wnetlier it contains all that is 



APPENDIX. 119 

desirable ; I merely take it as it is, and rearrange it thus* No. of inter* 
ment ; name, description, and residence of the deceased ; age ; disease (this 
will, however,.be of no value unless it be certified by a medical man) ; date 
and hour of burial ; officiating clergyman ; sexton ; undertaker : all these 
relate to the past. The following re^r to the future: No. of grave ; in what 
part of cemetery ; monumental distinction, purchaser, and date ; amount for 
interment ; sum paid for keeping in order the grave, &c., and time during 
which, &c. 

P. 43. '* Ledger,** I think there ought to be a corresponding ledger, 
showing what duties are to be performed towards each grave, in double form. 
First, classed numerically. No. 1 . Stone to be kept in order for ten years ; 
date at which the liability commences and ceases. No. 5. Flowers to be 
planted, &c. &c. 

Again, in another form. Gravestones to be kept in order : Nos. 7. 
12., &c., &c. Flowers to be planted : Nos. 5. 9. 13., &c. &c. Or, perhaps, 
the same end might be obtained by having a map with a distinctive colour 
for each kind of duty, so that the attendants and managers might see at a 
glance that the whole was correctly performed. 

'*Map Book!* 'The scales adopted should be uniform, and should be some 
multiple of the scale used in the township plan or government survey. 

'* Rtdet and regulations,** &c. If you propose to make your work a manual, 
then add a code of these rules, compiled from the best existing; codes, with 
additions. Perhaps these details mignt accompany the collection of monu» 
ments which I before suggested. 

P. 49. " Temporary cemeteries** &c. The best purpose to apply what 
you have designated temporary cemeteries to, would be to plant them and 
keep them in timber, and so insure that the ground need not be disturbed, at 
any rate not to a depth that would interfere with the interments. 

P. 50. " ShilUbeer's hearse** was introduced here [Leeds] a few weeks since, 
and struck me as a great boon to those who wish to reduce the cost of 
funerals, and yet fear to do what may be considered not respectful towards the 
deceased. I cannot say whether it has been much used or not, but I have no 
doubt of its soon being employed when it is fully known. 

** Mr, Jukes*s truck-^arse ** would, I suppose, answer within the cemetery,, 
as I have already suggested. I should think it is susceptible of very great 
improvement. The retarding ought to be efiected by some mode more consistent 
with the solemnity required. 

P. 51. *^ Funeral processions,** &c, I wish you had enlarged more on the 
subject of funeral processions and attendants. It would be improper to treat 
the subject with levity ; but it may be safely asserted that the whole of the 
arrangements are suitable only to a barbarous age. The dresses and deco- 
rations are even childish, and many of the accompaniments any thing but 
appropriate. The heavy and ponderous ornaments are intended to convey an 
idea at once of solemnity and magnificence ; but how badly are they supported 
by the appearance of the jaded and foundered horses, and the uncouthness 
of the drivers I This is a part of the subject that I hope you will take up,, 
and illustrate it by drawings contrasting the present modes with others more 
consistent with good taste. It is in vain, at present and at once, to advise the 
middle classes to retrench in these expenses ; but it may be possible to per- 
suade them to adopt more rational modes of proceeding. 

P. 53. " The soil of the Cambridge Cemetery,** &c. I think borings should 
have been taken, to the depth of 10 or 12 feet at the least, and the result 
stated, as well as the direction of the dip, if any, of the strata. 

P. 57. line 5. " Steps to the chapel,** &c. I should object to a flight of 
steps, even at the risk of injuring the appearance of the building, as unsuitable 
to the purpose and inconvenient to those who carrv the body ; if it must be 
elevated, let the ground rise gently : but, if you will have steps, let them be 
not less than 7 f^. broad, that the bearers may have room to stand at each rise. 
P. 67. line 31. "No evil results** &c. That is, of course, no appreciable 
evil ; but I incline to think that the gas will still escape, and, though in small 



120 ON LAYING OCT CEyEtEBtB& 

quntitia, be imnriooa : noir, could not mne «iiliiJ»n*j be fimnd, tbat mkfat 
be pbced round the cc^En, wtiicti, h«ni^ s gtvato' afStnttfbr aotntfif »e 
demcDts of the ^s tfasn tbe other dcmaiUllsTe, itooU deconiposa it, and 
render it imucuofu ? Tbe next coosidentioil is, at what espenae oooM this be 
done ? I need oot »»y this is • rfrj diffitfent matter bpm potting itme ido 
the coffin (p.'W.) ; tbe object bere is not to decuiqMMe,~faat, when the prodnets 
of decoDipotitioa are formed, to render tbeoi harmless. As to expense, I 
beUere that is, in all ones, oiily a qoettion of ttme^ I toean that, if we can 
once acccHD^disfa an olgect at any cost, we daO ultimaldy, by soMe meaoB or 
otbcr, do it ecooooucaUy. Expense depends on nodes, not on (trincqiles, in 
these matten. 

P, SI. " Gmca at deep at aieilt' except tbat the cost would soon be audi 
as to defett the otiject. This object mtgfat be attained where tbae bad been 
quarries excarated, by filling the ^ground op gradually ; but this would also be 
an expennve process. 

P. 72. line i. " Mnemala, or tie tombi" Is it not the QmA word fiif- 
furra ? and, if so, it means recollectionB, rememtwances, mentoriet ; and forms 
a beautiiiil instance of tbeir eupheniiBini, as applied to the tond). 

P. SO. ** T&epractiix ofadtaUhig cattle into doBrda/ardM" has arisen ootoF 
an abase of the law. When a church was founded, as almost all onr churchea 
were, by the great landowners of tbe time for the use of tfaor tenants, a church- 
;«rd was adtkd for interment. B; Icsal construction, the nicumboit is con^ 
sidered as a corporatioD sole, and the freehold vested in him to preserve it Ttw 
the uses oF the church; but he has gradually come to look upon it as if it were 
as nfcich his, for any purposes, as any other freehold, sut>ject only to the limit 
of the right of iatennents. Hence his cl^m (which is good in law but not in 
justice, nor consonant to the feelings of these dmes,) to stock it as well as 
any part of the glebe. It ought not to require an enactment to remove this. 
encroachment : the bishops or archdeacons have only to discourage it; and 
the public has only to direct attention quietly and ^enoally, but not offen- 
sively and personally, to it, and it will be prohibited. It is quite clear 
tbat this practice most be discontinued, before any nsefiil attempt can be made 
to beautify our churchyards. 

P. 81. line 36. " 7%f enlargement of churtAt/ardt" should be provided for 
by Gmnitig them at first, or on their Bret alteration, so as to admit of additions 
at the least cost It would seem to be the best way, to provide for the 
addition on one sid^ and that tbe narrowest, so as to destroy tbe shortest 
posnble length of fence. To enable this to be done, buiUbng within certain 
bmits of a cnurcbyard should be prohibited, and a powra" given to certiun per- 
sons to take land tot the puTpose.— T. IV. CrmbUt Houte, March 84. 1843 



FltSO- lta»il-UerT^eTTBlloMp.M. 



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